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Indian Rebellion of 1857 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 
1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper 
Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern 
Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that 
region, and it was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858. The rebellion is also known as the 
India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 
1857, the Sepoy Rebellion, and the Sepoy Mutiny. 

Other regions of Company-controlled India — such as Bengal, the Bombay Presidency, and the Madras Presidency — 
remained largely calm. In Punjab, the Sikh princes backed the Company by providing both soldiers and support. 
The large princely states of Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore, and Kashmir, as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana, 
did not join the rebellion. In some regions, such as Oudh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt 
against European presence. Rebel leaders, such as the Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi, became folk heroes in the 
nationalist movement in India half a century later; however, they themselves "generated no coherent ideology" for 
a new order. The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858. It also led the British to 
reorganise the army, the financial system and the administration in India. India was thereafter directly governed by 
the crown as the new British Raj. 

East India Company expansion in India 

Although the British East India Company had earlier administered the factory areas established for trading purposes, 
its victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of its firm foothold in Eastern India. The victory 
was consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar (in Bihar), when the defeated Mughal emperor, Shah Alam II, 
granted the Company the right for "collection of Revenue" in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. The 
Company soon expanded its territories around its bases in Bombay and Madras; the Anglo-Mysore Wars 
(1766—1799) and the Anglo-Maratha Wars (1772—1818) led to control of the vast region of India south of the 
Narmada River. 

The expansion did not occur without resistance. In 1806 the Vellore Mutiny was sparked due to new uniform 
regulations that created resentment amongst both Hindu and Muslim sepoys. 

After the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated 

ro] 

expansion of Company territories. This was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company and 
local rulers or by direct military annexation. The subsidiary alliances created the princely states (or native states) of 
the Hindu maharajas and the Muslim nawabs. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, and Kashmir were annexed 
after the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849; however, Kashmir was immediately sold under the Treaty of Amritsar 
(1850) to the Dogra Dynasty of Jammu and thereby became a princely state. The border dispute between Nepal and 
British India, which sharpened after 1801, had caused the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814—16 and brought the Gurkhas 
under British influence. In 1854, Berar was annexed, and the state of Oudh was added two years later. For practical 
purposes, the Company was the government of much of India. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 

Causes of the rebellion 

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single 
event. 

The sepoys were local soldiers, the majority Hindu or Muslim, that were recruited into the Company's army. Just 
before the Rebellion there were over 200,000 sepoys in the army, compared to about 50,000 British. The forces were 
divided into three presidency armies: Bombay, Madras, and Bengal. The Bengal Army recruited higher castes, such 
as "Rajputs and Brahmins", mostly from the Awadh (near Lucknow) and Bihar regions and even restricted the 
enlistment of lower castes in 1855. In contrast, the Madras Army and Bombay Army were "more localized, 
caste-neutral armies" that "did not prefer high-caste men." The domination of higher castes in the Bengal Army 
has been blamed in part for initial mutinies that led to the rebellion. In fact, the role of castes had become so 
important that men were no longer "selected on account of the most important qualities in a soldier, i.e., physical 
fitness, willingness and strength, docility and courage, but because he belonged to a certain caste or sect". 

In 1772, when Warren Hastings was appointed India's first Governor-General, one of his first undertakings was the 
rapid expansion of the Company's army. Since the sepoys from Bengal — many of whom had fought against the 
Company in the Battles of Plassey and Buxar — were now suspect in British eyes, Hastings recruited farther west 
from the high-caste rural Rajputs and Brahmins of Awadh and Bihar, a practice that continued for the next 75 years. 
However, in order to forestall any social friction, the Company also took pains to adapt its military practices to the 
requirements of their religious rituals. Consequently, these soldiers dined in separate facilities; in addition, overseas 
service, considered polluting to their caste, was not required of them, and the army soon came officially to recognize 
Hindu festivals. "This encouragement of high caste ritual status, however, left the government vulnerable to protest, 
even mutiny, whenever the sepoys detected infringement of their prerogatives." 

It has been suggested that after the annexation of Oudh by the East India Company in 1856, many sepoys were 
disquieted both from losing their perquisites, as landed gentry, in the Oudh courts and from the anticipation of any 
increased land-revenue payments that the annexation might bring about. Others have stressed that by 1857, some 

Indian soldiers, reading the presence of missionaries as a sign of official intent, were convinced that the Company 

ri2i 
was masterminding mass conversions of Hindus and Muslims to Christianity. Although earlier in the 1830s, 

evangelists such as William Carey and William Wilberforce had successfully clamored for the passage of social 

reform such as the abolition of sati and allowing the remarriage of Hindu widows, there is little evidence that the 

sepoys' allegiance was affected by this. 

However, changes in the terms of their professional service may have created resentment. As the extent of the East 
India Company's jurisdiction expanded with victories in wars or with annexation, the soldiers were now not only 
expected to serve in less familiar regions (such as in Burma in the Anglo-Burmese Wars in 1856), but also make do 

ri3i 

without the "foreign service" remuneration that had previously been their due. Another financial grievance 
stemmed from the general service act, which denied retired sepoys a pension; whilst this only applied to new 
recruits, it was suspected that it would also apply to those already in service. In addition, the Bengal Army was paid 

ri4i 

less than the Madras and Bombay Armies, which compounded the fears over pensions. 

A major cause of resentment that arose ten months prior to the outbreak of the Rebellion was the General Service 
Enlistment Act of 25 July 1856. As noted above, men of the Bengal Army had been exempted from overseas service. 
Specifically they were enlisted only for service in territories to which they could march. Governor-General Lord 
Dalhousie saw this as an anomaly, since all sepoys of the Madras and Bombay Armies (plus six "General Service" 
battalions of the Bengal Army) had accepted an obligation to serve overseas if required. As a result the burden of 
providing contingents for active service in Burma (readily accessible only by sea) and China had fallen 
disproportionately on the two smaller Presidency Armies. As signed into effect by Lord Canning, Dalhousie's 
successor as Governor-General, the Act required only new recruits to the Bengal Army to accept a commitment for 
general (that is overseas) service. However, serving high-caste sepoys were fearful that it would be eventually 
extended to them, as well as preventing sons following fathers into an Army with a strong tradition of family 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



• [15] 

service. 



There were also grievances over the issue of promotions, based on seniority. This, as well as the increasing number 

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of European officers in the battalions, made promotion a slow progress, and many Indian officers did not reach 
commissioned rank until they were too old to be effective. 

Tallow-greased cartridges 

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The final spark was provided by the ammunition for new Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle. These rifles had a tighter fit, 
and used paper cartridges that came pre-greased. To load the rifle, sepoys had to bite the cartridge open to release the 
powder. The grease used on these cartridges included tallow, which if derived from pork would be offensive 
to Muslims, and if derived from beef would be offensive to Hindus. At least one British official pointed out the 
difficulties this may cause: "unless it be proven that the grease employed in these cartridges is not of a nature to 
offend or interfere with the prejudices of caste, it will be expedient not to issue them for test to Native corps' 

However, in August 1856, greased cartridge production was initiated at Fort William, Calcutta, following British 

T211 
design. The grease used included tallow supplied by the Indian firm of Gangadarh Banerji & Co. By January, the 

rumours were abroad that the Enfield cartridges were greased with animal fat. Company officers became aware of 

T221 
the rumours through reports of an altercation between a high-caste sepoy and a low-caste labourer at Dum Dum. 

The labourer had taunted the sepoy that by biting the cartridge, he had himself lost caste, although at this time such 

[20] [231 

cartridges had been issued only at Meerut and not at Dum Dum. 

On 27 January, Colonel Richard Birch, the Military Secretary, ordered that all cartridges issued from depots were to 

T241 
be free from grease, and that sepoys could grease them themselves using whatever mixture "they may prefer". A 

modification was also made to the drill for loading so that the cartridge was torn with the hands and not bitten. This 

however, merely caused many sepoys to be convinced that the rumours were true and that their fears were justified. 

Additional rumours started that the paper in the new cartridges, which was glazed and stiffer than the previously 

used paper, was impregnated with grease. 

Civilian disquiet 

The civilian rebellion was more multifarious in origin. The rebels consisted of three groups: the feudal nobility, rural 
landlords called taluqdars, and the peasants. The nobility, many of whom had lost titles and domains under the 
Doctrine of Lapse, which refused to recognize the adopted children of princes as legal heirs, felt that the Company 
had interfered with a traditional system of inheritance. Rebel leaders such as Nana Sahib and the Rani of Jhansi 

belonged to this group; the latter, for example, was prepared to accept East India Company supremacy if her adopted 

T251 
son was recognized as her late husband's heir. In other areas of central India, such as Indore and Saugar, where 

such loss of privilege had not occurred, the princes remained loyal to the Company even in areas where the sepoys 

had rebelled. The second group, the taluqdars, had lost half their landed estates to peasant farmers as a result of 

the land reforms that came in the wake of annexation of Oudh. As the rebellion gained ground, the taluqdars quickly 

reoccupied the lands they had lost, and paradoxically, in part due to ties of kinship and feudal loyalty, did not 

experience significant opposition from the peasant farmers, many of whom joined the rebellion, to the great dismay 

T271 
of the British. It has also been suggested that heavy land-revenue assessment in some areas by the British resulted 

in many landowning families either losing their land or going into great debt with money lenders, and providing 

ultimately a reason to rebel; money lenders, in addition to the Company, were particular objects of the rebels' 

T2R1 

animosity. The civilian rebellion was also highly uneven in its geographic distribution, even in areas of 

north-central India that were no longer under British control. For example, the relatively prosperous Muzaffarnagar 

district, a beneficiary of a Company irrigation scheme, and next door to Meerut, where the upheaval began, stayed 

[291 
mostly calm throughout. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 




Charles Canning, the 

Governor-General of India 

during the rebellion. 



Lord Dalhousie, the 

Governor-General of India 

from 1848 to 1856, who 

devised the Doctrine of Lapse 



Lakshmibai, The Rani of 
Jhansi, one of the principal 
leaders of the rebellion who 
earlier had lost her kingdom 
as a result of the Doctrine of 
Lapse. 



Bahadur Shah Zafar the last 

Mughal Emperor, crowned 

Emperor of India, by the 

Indian troops, he was deposed 

by the British, and died in exile 

in Burma 



Much of the resistance to the Company came from the old aristocracy, who were seeing their power steadily eroded. 
The company had annexed several states under the Doctrine of Lapse, according to which land belonging to a feudal 
ruler became the property of the East India Company if on his death, the ruler did not leave a male heir through 
natural process. It had long been the custom for a childless landowner to adopt an heir, but the East India Company 
ignored this tradition. Nobility, feudal landholders, and royal armies found themselves unemployed and humiliated 
due to Company expansionism. Even the jewels of the royal family of Nagpur were publicly auctioned in Calcutta, a 
move that was seen as a sign of abject disrespect by the remnants of the Indian aristocracy. Lord Dalhousie, the 
Governor-General of India, had asked the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar and his successors to leave the Red 
Fort, the palace in Delhi. Later, Lord Canning, the next Governor-General of India, announced in 1856 that Bahadur 
Shah's successors would not even be allowed to use the title of 'king'. Such discourtesies were resented by the 
deposed Indian rulers. 

"Utilitarian and evangelical-inspired social reform", including the 

abolition of sati and the legalisation of widow remarriage were 

1331 
considered by many — especially the British themselves — to have 

caused suspicion that Indian religious traditions were being "interfered 

r33ir34i 
with", with the ultimate aim of conversion. Recent historians, 

including Chris Bayly, have preferred to frame this as a "clash of 

knowledges", with proclamations from religious authorities before the 

revolt and testimony after it including on such issues as the "insults to 

women", the rise of "low persons under British tutelage", the 

"pollution" caused by Western medicine and the persecuting and 

T351 
ignoring of traditional astrological authorities. European-run 

schools were also a problem: according to recorded testimonies, anger 

had spread because of stories that mathematics was replacing religious 

instruction, stories were chosen that would "bring contempt" upon 

Indian religions, and because girl children were exposed to "moral 




danger" by education 



[35] 



Sir Syed Ahmed Khan founder of the 
Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, later the 

Aligarh Muslim University, wrote one of the 

early critiques, The Causes of the Indian Mutiny, 

in 1859. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 

The justice system was considered to be inherently unfair to the Indians. The official Blue Books, East India 
(Torture) 1855—1857, laid before the House of Commons during the sessions of 1856 and 1857 revealed that 
Company officers were allowed an extended series of appeals if convicted or accused of brutality or crimes against 
Indians. 

The economic policies of the East India Company were also resented by many Indians. 

The Bengal Army 

Each of the three "Presidencies" into which the East India Company divided India for administrative purposes 
maintained their own armies. Of these, the Army of the Bengal Presidency was the largest. Unlike the other two, it 
recruited heavily from among high-caste Hindus (and comparatively wealthy Muslims). The Muslims formed a 
larger percentage of the Irregular units within the Bengal army, whilst Hindus were mainly to be found in the regular 
units. The sepoys (the native Indian soldiers) were therefore affected to a large degree by the concerns of the 
landholding and traditional members of Indian society. In the early years of the Company rule, they tolerated and 
even encouraged the caste privileges and customs within the Bengal Army, which recruited its regular soldiers 
almost exclusively amongst the landowning Bhumihar Brahmins and Rajputs of the Ganges Valley. By the time 
these customs and privileges came to be threatened by modernizing regimes in Calcutta from the 1840s onwards, the 
sepoys had become accustomed to very high ritual status, and were extremely sensitive to suggestions that their caste 
might be polluted. 

The sepoys also gradually became dissatisfied with various other aspects of army life. Their pay was relatively low 
and after Awadh and the Punjab were annexed, the soldiers no longer received extra pay (batta or bhatta) for service 
there, because they were no longer considered "foreign missions". The junior European officers were increasingly 
estranged from their soldiers, in many cases treating them as their racial inferiors. Officers of an evangelical 

persuasion in the Company's Army (such as Herbert Edwardes and Colonel S.G. Wheler of the 34th Bengal Infantry) 

T371 
had taken to preaching to their sepoys in the hope of converting them to Christianity. In 1856, a new Enlistment 

Act was introduced by the Company, which in theory made every unit in the Bengal Army liable to service overseas. 

(Although it was intended to apply to new recruits only, the sepoys feared that the Act might be applied retroactively 

to them as well. It was argued that a high-caste Hindu who traveled in the cramped, squalid conditions of a troop 

ship would find it impossible to avoid losing caste through ritual pollution.) 

Onset of the Rebellion 

Several months of increasing tensions coupled with various incidents preceded the actual rebellion. On 26 February 
1857 the 19th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment became concerned that new cartridges they had been issued 
were wrapped in paper greased with cow and pig fat, which had to be opened by mouth thus affecting their religious 
sensibilities. Their Colonel confronted them supported by artillery and cavalry on the parade ground, but after some 

no] 

negotiation withdrew the artillery, and canceled the next morning's parade. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 






I 






Mangal Pandey 

On 29 March 1857 at the Barrackpore (now Barrackpur) parade 

ground, near Calcutta (now Kolkata), 29-year-old Mangal Pandey of 

the 34th BNI, angered by the recent actions of the East India 

Company, declared that he would rebel against his commanders. 

Informed about Pandey's apparently drug induced behaviour 

Sergeant-Major James Hewson went to investigate only to have 

[39] 
Pandey shoot at him. Hewson raised the alarm. When his adjutant 

Lt. Henry Baugh came out to investigate the unrest, Pandey opened 

fire but hit Baugh's horse instead. 

General John Hearsey came out to see him on the parade ground, and 
claimed later that Mangal Pandey was in some kind of "religious 
frenzy". He ordered the Indian commander of the quarter guard 
Jemadar Ishwari Prasad to arrest Mangal Pandey, but the Jemadar 
refused. The quarter guard and other sepoys present, with the single 
exception of a soldier called Shaikh Paltu, drew back from 
restraining or arresting Mangal Pandey. Shaikh Paltu restrained 
Pandey from continuing his attack. 

After failing to incite his comrades into an open and active rebellion, 
Mangal Pandey tried to take his own life by placing his musket to his 
chest, and pulling the trigger with his toe. He only managed to 
wound himself, and was court-martialled on 6 April. He was hanged on 8 April. 

The Jemadar Ishwari Prasad was sentenced to death and hanged on 22 April. The regiment was disbanded and 
stripped of their uniforms because it was felt that they harboured ill-feelings towards their superiors, particularly 
after this incident. Shaikh Paltu was promoted to the rank of Jemadar in the Bengal Army. 

Sepoys in other regiments thought this as a very harsh punishment. The show of disgrace while disbanding 
contributed to the extent of the rebellion in view of some historians, as disgruntled ex-sepoys returned home to 
Awadh with a desire to inflict revenge, as and when the opportunity arose. 





Mangal Pandey 



April 1857 

During April, there was unrest and fires at Agra, Allahabad and Ambala. At Ambala in particular, which was a large 
military cantonment where several units had been collected for their annual musketry practice, it was clear to 
General Anson, Commander-in-Chief of the Bengal Army, that some sort of riot over the cartridges was imminent. 
Despite the objections of the civilian Governor-General's staff, he agreed to postpone the musketry practice, and 
allow a new drill by which the soldiers tore the cartridges with their fingers rather than their teeth. However, he 
issued no general orders making this standard practice throughout the Bengal Army and, rather than remain at 
Ambala to defuse or overawe potential trouble, he then proceeded to Simla, the cool "hill station" where many high 
officials spent the summer. 

Although there was no open revolt at Ambala, there was widespread arson during late April. Barrack buildings 

(especially those belonging to soldiers who had used the Enfield cartridges) and European officers' bungalows were 

f [42] 
set on fire. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



Meerut and Delhi 




An 1858 photograph by Felice Beato of a mosque 

in Meerut where some of the rebel soldiers may 

have prayed. 



Meerut 

At Meerut was another large military cantonment where 2,357 Indian 
sepoys and 2,038 British soldiers were stationed, with 12 
British-manned guns. The station held one of the largest concentrations 
of British troops in India and this was later to be cited as evidence that 
the original rising was a spontaneous outbreak rather than a 
pre-planned plot. 

Although the state of unrest within the Bengal Army was well known, 

on 24 April Lieutenant Colonel George Carmichael-Smyth, the 

unsympathetic commanding officer of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry, 

ordered 90 of his men to parade and perform firing drills. All except 

five of the men on parade refused to accept their cartridges. On 9 May, 

the remaining 85 men were court martialled, and most were sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment with hard labour. 

Eleven comparatively young soldiers were given five years' imprisonment. The entire garrison was paraded and 

watched as the condemned men were stripped of their uniforms and placed in shackles. As they were marched off to 

jail, the condemned soldiers berated their comrades for failing to support them. 

The next day was Sunday, the Christian day of rest and worship. Some Indian soldiers warned off-duty junior 
European officers (including Hugh Gough, then a lieutenant of horse) that plans were afoot to release the imprisoned 
soldiers by force, but the senior officers to whom this was reported in turn took no action. There was also unrest in 
the city of Meerut itself, with angry protests in the bazaar and some buildings being set on fire. In the evening, most 
European officers were preparing to attend church, while many of the European soldiers were off duty and had gone 
into canteens or into the bazaar in Meerut. The Indian troops, led by the 3rd Cavalry, broke into revolt. European 
junior officers who attempted to quell the first outbreaks were killed by their own men. European officers' and 
civilians' quarters were attacked, and four civilian men, eight women and eight children were killed. Crowds in the 
bazaar attacked the off-duty soldiers there. About 50 Indian civilians (some of whom were officers' servants who 
tried to defend or conceal their employers) were also killed by the sepoys 



[39] 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



Within the city of Meerut, the Kotwal (holder of the fort) Dhan Singh Gurjar 

T441 
opened the gate of the jail. A total of about 50 European men (including 

soldiers), women and children were killed in Meerut by sepoys and 

crowds. on the evening of 10 May. The sepoys freed their 85 

imprisoned comrades from the jail, along with 800 other prisoners (debtors 



and criminals) 



[46] 



Some sepoys (especially from the 11th Bengal Native Infantry) escorted 
trusted British officers and women and children to safety before joining the 
revolt. Some officers and their families escaped to Rampur, where they 
found refuge with the Nawab. 

The senior Company officers, in particular Major General Hewitt, the 
commander of the division (who was nearly 70 years old and in poor health), 
were slow to react. The British troops (mainly the 1st Battalion of the 60th 
Rifles, the 6th Dragoon Guards and two European-manned batteries of the 
Bengal Artillery) rallied, but received no orders to engage the rebellious 
sepoys and could only guard their own headquarters and armouries. On the 
following morning when they prepared to attack, they found Meerut was quiet 
and that the rebels had marched off to Delhi. 




Kotwal Dhan Singh Gurjar 



The British historian Philip Mason notes that it was inevitable that most of the 

sepoys and sowars from Meerut should have made for Delhi on the night of 10 May. It was a strong walled city 

located only forty miles away, it was the ancient capital and present seat of the Mughal Emperor and finally there 



were no British troops in garrison there (by contrast with the relatively strong concentration at Meerut) 
no-one could have anticipated was that no effort was made to pursue them. 



[43] 



What 



Delhi 

Early on 11 May, the first parties of the 3rd Cavalry reached Delhi. From beneath the windows of the King's 
apartments in the palace, they called on him to acknowledge and lead them. Bahadur Shah did nothing at this point 
(apparently treating the sepoys as ordinary petitioners), but others in the palace were quick to join the revolt. During 
the day, the revolt spread. Gujjars from Chandrawal, led by Chaudhry Day a Ram, destroyed the house of Chief 

Magistrate Theophilus Metcalfe. European officials and dependents, Indian Christians and shop keepers 

[49] 
within the city were killed, some by sepoys and others by crowds of rioters. 

There were three battalions of Bengal Native Infantry stationed in or 

near the city. Some detachments quickly joined the rebellion, while 

others held back but also refused to obey orders to take action against 

the rebels. In the afternoon, a violent explosion in the city was heard 

for several miles. Fearing that the arsenal, which contained large stocks 

of arms and ammunition, would fall intact into rebel hands, the nine 

British Ordnance officers there had opened fire on the sepoys, 

including the men of their own guard. When resistance appeared 

hopeless, they blew up the arsenal. Although six of the nine officers 

survived, the blast killed many in the streets and nearby houses and 

other buildings. The news of these events finally tipped the sepoys 

stationed around Delhi into open rebellion. The sepoys were later able to salvage at least some arms from the arsenal, 

and a magazine two miles (3 km) outside Delhi, containing up to 3,000 barrels of gunpowder, was captured without 

resistance. 




The Flagstaff Tower, Delhi, where the European 

survivors of the rebellion gathered on 1 1 May 

1857; photographed by Felice Beato 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



Many fugitive European officers and civilians had congregated at the Flagstaff Tower on the ridge north of Delhi, 
where telegraph operators were sending news of the events to other British stations. When it became clear that the 
help expected from Meerut was not coming, they made their way in carriages to Karnal. Those who became 
separated from the main body or who could not reach the Flagstaff Tower also set out for Karnal on foot. Some were 
helped by villagers on the way, others were robbed or murdered. 

The next day, Bahadur Shah held his first formal court for many years. It was attended by many excited or unruly 
sepoys. The King was alarmed by the turn events had taken, but eventually accepted the sepoys' allegiance and 
agreed to give his countenance to the rebellion. On 16 May, up to 50 Europeans who had been held prisoner in the 
palace or had been discovered hiding in the city were said to have been killed by some of the King's servants under a 



peepul tree in a courtyard outside the palace 



[51][52] 



Indian States during 
Revolt of 1857 



Support and opposition 

The news of the events at Delhi spread rapidly, 
provoking uprisings among sepoys and disturbances in 
many districts. In many cases, it was the behaviour of 
British military and civilian authorities themselves 
which precipitated disorder. Learning of the fall of 
Delhi by telegraph, many Company administrators 
hastened to remove themselves, their families and 
servants to places of safety. At Agra, 160 miles 
(unknown operator: u'strong' km) from Delhi, no 
less than 6,000 assorted non-combatants converged on 

T531 

the Fort. The haste with which many civilians left 
their posts encouraged rebellions in the areas they left, 
although others remained at their posts until it was 
clearly impossible to maintain any sort of order. 
Several were murdered by rebels or lawless gangs. 

The military authorities also reacted in disjointed 

manner. Some officers trusted their sepoys, but others 

tried to disarm them to forestall potential uprisings. At 

Benares and Allahabad, the disarmings were bungled, 

[541 
also leading to local revolts. 

Although rebellion became widespread, there was little unity among the rebels. While Bahadur Shah Zafar was 
restored to the imperial throne there was a faction that wanted the Maratha rulers to be enthroned also, and the 
Awadhis wanted to retain the powers that their Nawab used to have. 

There were calls for jihad by Muslim leaders like Maulana Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi and the millenarian 
Ahmedullah Shah, which were taken up by Muslims, particularly artisans, which caused the British to think that the 
Muslims were the main force behind this event. The Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah, resisted these calls for jihad 
because, it has been suggested, he feared outbreaks of communal violence. In Awadh, Sunni Muslims did not want 
to see a return to Shiite rule, so they often refused to join what they perceived to be a Shia rebellion. However, some 
Muslims like the Aga Khan supported the British. The British rewarded him by formally recognizing his title. 

Although most of the rebellious sepoys in Delhi were Hindus, a significant proportion of the insurgents were 
Muslims. The proportion of ghazis grew to be about a quarter of the local fighting force by the end of the siege, and 
included a regiment of suicide ghazis from Gwalior who had vowed never to eat again and to fight until they met 
certain death at the hands of British troops 




States during the rebellion 



[56] 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 10 

In Thana Bhawan, the Sunnis declared Haji Imdadullah their Ameer. In May 1857 the Battle of Shamli took place 
between the forces of Haji Imdadullah and the British. 

The Sikhs and Pathans of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province supported the British and helped in the 

recapture of Delhi. Historian John Harris has asserted that the Sikhs wanted to avenge the annexation of the 

Sikh Empire eight years earlier by the Company with the help of Purabias ('Easterners'); Biharis and those from the 

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh who had formed part of the East India Company's armies in the First and Second 

Anglo-Sikh Wars. He has also suggested that Sikhs felt insulted by the attitude of sepoys who (in their view) had 

[59] 
only beaten the Khalsa with British help; they resented and despised them far more than they did the British. It is 

also believed that the Sikhs were not willing to help reinstate the Mughal rule in India. 

According to Hugh K. Trevaskis, Sikh support for the British resulted from grievances surrounding Sepoys' 
perceived conduct during and after the Anglo-Sikh Wars. Firstly, many Sikhs resented that Hindustanis in service of 
the Sikh state had been foremost in urging the wars which lost them their independence. Sikh soldiers also 
recalled that the bloodiest battles of the war, Chillianwala and Ferozeshah, were won by British troops, and they 
believed that the Hindustani sepoys had refused to meet them in battle. These feelings were compounded when 
Hindustani Sepoys were assigned a very visible role as garrison troops in Punjab and awarded profit-making civil 
posts in Punjab. 

In 1857, the Bengal Army had 86,000 men of which 12,000 were European, 16,000 Sikh and 1,500 Gurkha soldiers, 
out of a total of (for the three Indian armies) 311,000 native soldiers, and 40,160 European soldiers as well as 5,362 
officers. Fifty-four of the Bengal Army's 75 regular Native Infantry Regiments rebelled, although some were 
immediately destroyed or broke up with their sepoys drifting away to their homes. A number of the remaining 21 
regiments were disarmed or disbanded to prevent or forestall rebellion. In total only twelve of the original Bengal 
Native Infantry regiments survived to pass into the new Indian Army All ten of the Bengal Light Cavalry 
regiments rebelled. 

The Bengal Army also included 29 Irregular Cavalry and 42 Irregular Infantry regiments. These included a 
substantial contingent from the recently annexed state of Awadh, which rebelled en masse. Another large contingent 
from Gwalior also rebelled, even though that state's ruler remained allied to the British. The remainder of the 
Irregular units were raised from a wide variety of sources and were less affected by the concerns of mainstream 
Indian society. Three bodies in particular actively supported the Company; three Gurkha and five of six Sikh infantry 
units, and the six infantry and six cavalry units of the recently raised Punjab Irregular Force. 

On 1 April 1858, the number of Indian soldiers in the Bengal army loyal to the Company was 80,053. This 

total included a large number of soldiers hastily raised in the Punjab and North-West Frontier after the outbreak of 
the Rebellion. The Bombay army had three mutinies in its 29 regiments whilst the Madras army had no mutinies, 
though elements of one of its 52 regiments refused to volunteer for service in Bengal. Most of southern India 
remained passive with only sporadic and haphazard outbreaks of violence. Most of the states did not take part in the 
war as many parts of the region were ruled by the Nizams or the Mysore royalty and were thus not directly under 
British rule. 

The Revolt 
Initial stages 

Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed the Emperor of the whole of India. Most contemporary and modern accounts 
suggest that he was coerced by the sepoys and his courtiers to sign the proclamation against his will. In spite of 
the significant loss of power that the Mughal dynasty had suffered in the preceding centuries, their name still carried 
great prestige across northern India. The civilians, nobility and other dignitaries took the oath of allegiance to the 
Emperor. The British, who had long ceased to take the authority of the Mughal Emperor seriously were astonished at 
how the ordinary people responded to Zafar's call for war. The Emperor issued coins in his name, one of the 



Indian Rebellion of 1 857 1 1 

oldest ways of asserting Imperial status, and his name was added to the acceptance by Muslims that he is their King. 
This proclamation, however, turned the Sikhs of Punjab away from the rebellion, as they did not want to return to 
Islamic rule, having fought many wars against the Mughal rulers. The province of Bengal was largely quiet 
throughout the entire period. 

Initially, the Indian soldiers were able to significantly push back Company forces, and captured several important 
towns in Haryana, Bihar, Central Provinces and the United Provinces. When the European troops were reinforced 
and began to counterattack, the sepoys who mutinied were especially handicapped by their lack of a centralised 
command and control system. Although they produced some natural leaders such as Bakht Khan (whom the Emperor 
later nominated as commander-in-chief after his son Mirza Mughal proved ineffectual), for the most part they were 
forced to look for leadership to rajahs and princes. Some of these were to prove dedicated leaders, but others were 
self-interested or inept. 

In the countryside around Meerut, a general Gurjar uprising posed the largest threat to the British. In Parikshitgarh 

near Meerut, Gurjars declared Choudhari Kadam Singh (Kuddum Singh) their leader, and expelled Company police. 

[7111721 
Kadam Singh Gurjar led a large army of men, estimates varying from 2,000 to 10,000. Bulandshahr and 

Bijnor also came under the control of Gurjars under the leaders Walidad Khan and Maho Singh respectively. 

Contemporary sources report that nearly all the Gurjar villages in the area between Meerut and Delhi participated in 

the revolt, in some cases accompanied by mutinying sepoys from Jullundur, and it was not until late July that, with 

T721 
the help of the Jats of the area, the British managed to regain control of the area. 

The Imperial Gazetteer of India states that throughout the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Gurjars and Ranghars 

[731 
(Muslim rajpoots) proved the "most irreconcilable enemies" of the British in the Bulandshahr area. 

Mufti Nizamuddin, a renowned scholar of Rewari, issued a Fatwa against the British forces and called upon the local 
population to support the forces of Rao Tula Ram. Many people were killed in the fight at Narnaul (Nasibpur). After 
the defeat of Rao Tula Ram on 16 November 1857, Mufti Nizamuddin was arrested, and his brother Mufti 
Yaqinuddin and brother-in-law Abdur Rahman (alias Nabi Baksh) were arrested in Tijara. They were taken to Delhi 
and hanged. Having lost the fight at Nasibpur, Rao Tula Ram and Pran Sukh Yadav went to obtain arms from 
Russia which had just been engaged against Britain in the Crimean War. 

Delhi 

The British were slow to strike back at first. It took time for troops stationed in Britain to make their way to India by 
sea, although some regiments moved overland through Persia from the Crimean War, and some regiments already en 
route for China were diverted to India. 

It took time to organize the European troops already in India into field forces, but eventually two columns left 
Meerut and Simla. They proceeded slowly towards Delhi and fought, killed, and hanged numerous Indians along the 
way. Two months after the first outbreak of rebellion at Meerut, the two forces met near Karnal. The combined force 
(which included two Gurkha units serving in the Bengal Army under contract from the Kingdom of Nepal), fought 
the main army of the rebels at Badli-ke-Serai and drove them back to Delhi. 

The Company established a base on the Delhi ridge to the north of the city and the Siege of Delhi began. The siege 
lasted roughly from 1 July to 21 September. However, the encirclement was hardly complete, and for much of the 
siege the Company forces were outnumbered and it often seemed that it was the Company forces and not Delhi that 
was under siege, as the rebels could easily receive resources and reinforcements. For several weeks, it seemed that 
disease, exhaustion and continuous sorties by rebels from Delhi would force the Company forces to withdraw, but 
the outbreaks of rebellion in the Punjab were forestalled or suppressed, allowing the Punjab Movable Column of 

r-7C"i [""7A"] 

British, Sikh and Pakhtun soldiers under John Nicholson to reinforce the besiegers on the Ridge on 14 August. 

T771 
On 30 August the rebels offered terms, which were refused. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



12 



— . iMiiiM 










•%S&*£ 






■*- -» 


K 4 


4H -5* 



The Jantar Mantar 

observatory in Delhi in 1858, 

damaged in the fighting 






Mortar damage to Kashmiri 
Gate, Delhi, 1858 



Hindu Rao's house in Delhi, 

now a hospital, was 

extensively damaged in the 

fighting 



Bank of Delhi was attacked by 
mortar and gunfire 



An eagerly awaited heavy siege train joined the besieging force, and from 7 September, the siege guns battered 
breaches in the walls and silenced the rebels' artillery. An attempt to storm the city through the breaches and the 
Kashmiri Gate was launched on 14 September. The attackers gained a foothold within the city but suffered heavy 
casualties, including John Nicholson. The British commander wished to withdraw, but was persuaded to hold on by 
his junior officers. After a week of street fighting, the British reached the Red Fort. Bahadur Shah Zafar had already 
fled to Humayun's tomb. The British had retaken the city. 

The troops of the besieging force proceeded to loot and 
pillage the city. A large number of the citizens were killed in 
retaliation for the Europeans and Indian civilians that had 
been killed by the rebel sepoys. During the street fighting, 
artillery had been set up in the main mosque in the city and 
the neighbourhoods within range were bombarded. These 
included the homes of the Muslim nobility from all over India, 
and contained innumerable cultural, artistic, literary and 
monetary riches. 

The British soon arrested Bahadur Shah, and the next day 
British officer William Hodson shot his sons Mirza Mughal, 
Mirza Khazir Sultan, and grandson Mirza Abu Bakr under his 
own authority at the Khooni Darwaza (the bloody gate) near 
Delhi Gate. On hearing the news Zafar reacted with shocked silence while his wife Zinat Mahal was happy as she 

T781 

believed her son was now Zafar's heir. 

Shortly after the fall of Delhi, the victorious attackers organised a column which relieved another besieged Company 
force in Agra, and then pressed on to Cawnpore, which had also recently been recaptured. This gave the Company 
forces a continuous, although still tenuous, line of communication from the east to west of India. 




Capture of Bahadur Shah Zafar and his sons by William 
Hodson at Humayun's tomb on 20 September 1857 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



13 



Cawnpore (Kanpur) 

In June, sepoys under General Wheeler in Cawnpore (present day 
Kanpur) rebelled and besieged the European entrenchment. Wheeler 
was not only a veteran and respected soldier, but also married to a 
high-caste Indian lady. He had relied on his own prestige, and his 
cordial relations with the Nana Sahib to thwart rebellion, and took 
comparatively few measures to prepare fortifications and lay in 
supplies and ammunition. 

The besieged endured three weeks of the Siege of Cawnpore with little 

water or food, suffering continuous casualties to men, women and 

children. On 25 June Nana Sahib made an offer of safe passage to 

Allahabad. With barely three days' food rations remaining, the British 

agreed provided they could keep their small arms and that the 

evacuation should take place in daylight on the morning of the 27th 

(the Nana Sahib wanted the evacuation to take place on the night of the 

26th). Early in the morning of 27 June, the European party left their 

entrenchment and made their way to the river where boats provided by 

[791 
the Nana Sahib were waiting to take them to Allahabad. Several 

sepoys who had stayed loyal to the Company were removed by the 

mutineers and killed, either because of their loyalty or because "they 

had become Christian." A few injured British officers trailing the 

column were also apparently hacked to death by angry sepoys. After 

the European party had largely arrived at the dock, which was 




Tantia Topee's Soldiery 




A memorial erected (circa 1860) by the British 

after the Mutiny at the Bibi Ghar Well. After 

India's Independence the statue was moved to the 

Memorial Church, Cawnpore. Albumen silver 

print by Samuel Bourne, 1 860. 



surrounded by sepoys positioned on both banks of the Ganges, with 
clear lines of fire, firing broke out and the boats were abandoned by 

ron 

their crew, and caught or were set on fire using pieces of red hot 

r8?i 
charcoal. The British party tried to push the boats off but all except three remained stuck. One boat with over a 

dozen wounded men initially escaped, but later grounded, was caught by mutineers and pushed back down the river 

1821 

towards the carnage at Cawnpore. Towards the end rebel cavalry rode into the water to finish off any survivors. 

r8?i 
After the firing ceased the survivors were rounded up and the men shot. By the time the massacre was over, most 

of the male members of the party were dead while the surviving women and children were removed and held hostage 

roi] 

(and later killed in The Bibigarh massacre). Only four men eventually escaped alive from Cawnpore on one of the 
boats: two private soldiers (both of whom died later during the Rebellion), a lieutenant, and Captain Mowbray 
Thomson, who wrote a first-hand account of his experiences entitled The Story of Cawnpore (London, 1859). 



Whether the firing was planned or accidental remains unresolved. Most early histories assume it was planned either 
by the Nana Sahib (Kaye and Malleson) or that Tantia Tope and Brigadier Jwala Pershad planned it without the 
Nana Sahib's knowledge (G W Forrest). The stated reasons for the planned nature are: the speed with which the 
Nana Sahib agreed to the British conditions (Mowbray Thomson); and the firepower arranged around the ghat which 
was far in excess of what was necessary to guard the European troops (most histories agree on this). During his trial, 
Tatya Tope denied the existence of any such plan and described the incident in the following terms: the Europeans 
had already boarded the boats and he (Tatya Tope) raised his right hand to signal their departure. That very moment 
someone from the crowd blew a loud bugle which created disorder and in the ongoing bewilderment, the boatmen 
jumped off the boats. The rebels started shooting indiscriminately. Nana Sahib, who was staying in Savada Kothi 
(Bungalow) nearby, was informed about what was happening and immediately came to stop it. Some British 
histories allow that it might well have been the result of accident or error; someone accidentally or maliciously fired 



a shot, the panic-stricken British opened fire, and it became impossible to stop the massacre 



[85] 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



14 



The surviving women and children were taken to the Nana Sahib and then confined first to the Savada Kothi and 
then to the home of the local magistrate's clerk (The Bibigarh) where they were joined by refugees from 
Fatehgarh. Overall five men and two hundred and six women and children were confined in The Bibigarh for about 

[fil ] 

two weeks. In one week 25 were brought out dead, due to dysentery and cholera. Meanwhile a Company relief 
force that had advanced from Allahabad defeated the Indians and by 15 July it was clear that the Nana Sahib would 
not be able to hold Cawnpore and a decision was made by the Nana Sahib and other leading rebels that the hostages 
must be killed. After the sepoys refused to carry out this order, two Muslim butchers, two Hindu peasants and one of 
Nana's bodyguards went into The Bibigarh. Armed with knives and hatchets they murdered the women and 

T87] 

children. After the massacre the walls were covered in bloody hand prints, and the floor littered with fragments of 

rooi 

human limbs. The dead and the dying were thrown down a nearby well, when the well was full, the 50-foot 
(unknown operator: u'strong' m) deep well was filled with remains to within 6 feet (unknown operator: 
u'strong 1 m) of the top, the remainder were thrown into the Ganges. 

Historians have given many reasons for this act of cruelty. With Company forces approaching Cawnpore and some 
believing that they would not advance if there were no hostages to save, their murders were ordered. Or perhaps it 
was to ensure that no information was leaked after the fall of Cawnpore. Other historians have suggested that the 
killings were an attempt to undermine Nana Sahib's relationship with the British. Perhaps it was due to fear, the 



fear of being recognized by some of the prisoners for having taken part in the earlier firings 



[83] 









^#£ 







Photograph entitled, "The 
Hospital in General Wheeler's 

entrenchment, Cawnpore." 

(1858) The hospital was the site 

of the first major loss of 

European lives in Cawnpore 

(Kanpur) 




1858 picture of Sati Chaura Ghat 

on the banks of the Ganges 

River, where on 27 June 1857 

many British men lost their lives 

and the surviving women and 

children were taken prisoner by 

the rebels. 



Bibigurh house where 

European women and 

children were killed and 

the well where their bodies 

were found, 1858. 



The Bibigurh Well site where a 

memorial had been built. 

Samuel Bourne, 1860. 



The killing of the women and children proved to be a mistake. The British public was aghast and the anti Imperial 
and pro-Indian proponents lost all their support. Cawnpore became a war cry for the British and their allies for the 
rest of the conflict. The Nana Sahib disappeared near the end of the Rebellion and it is not known what happened to 

him. 

[92] [931 [941 
Other British accounts state that indiscriminate punitive measures were taken in early June, two weeks 

before the murders at the Bibi-Ghar (but after those at both Meerut and Delhi), specifically by Lieutenant Colonel 

James George Smith Neill of the Madras Fusiliers (a European unit), commanding at Allahabad while moving 

towards Cawnpore. At the nearby town of Fatehpur, a mob had attacked and murdered the local European 

population. On this pretext, Neill ordered all villages beside the Grand Trunk Road to be burned and their inhabitants 

[95] 
to be hanged. Neill's methods were "ruthless and horrible" and far from intimidating the population, may well 

have induced previously undecided sepoys and communities to revolt. 

Neill was killed in action at Lucknow on 26 September and was never called to account for his punitive measures, 
though contemporary British sources lionised him and his "gallant blue caps". 

When the British retook Cawnpore, the soldiers took their sepoy prisoners to The Bibigarh and forced them to lick 

[97] 
the bloodstains from the walls and floor. They then hanged or "blew from the cannon" (the traditional Mughal 

punishment for mutiny) the majority of the sepoy prisoners. Although some claimed the sepoys took no actual part in 

the killings themselves, they did not act to stop it and this was acknowledged by Captain Thompson after the British 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



15 



departed Cawnpore for a second time. 




Lucknow 

Very soon after the events in Meerut, rebellion erupted in the state of 
Awadh (also known as Oudh, in modern-day Uttar Pradesh), which 
had been annexed barely a year before. The British Commissioner 
resident at Lucknow, Sir Henry Lawrence, had enough time to fortify 
his position inside the Residency compound. The Company forces 
numbered some 1700 men, including loyal sepoys. The rebels' assaults 
were unsuccessful, and so they began a barrage of artillery and musket 
fire into the compound. Lawrence was one of the first casualties. The 
rebels tried to breach the walls with explosives and bypass them via 
underground tunnels that led to underground close combat. After 90 
days of siege, numbers of Company forces were reduced to 300 loyal 
sepoys, 350 British soldiers and 550 non-combatants. 

On 25 September a relief column under the command of Sir Henry 
Havelock and accompanied by Sir James Outram (who in theory was 
his superior) fought its way from Cawnpore to Lucknow in a brief 
campaign in which the numerically small column defeated rebel forces 
in a series of increasingly large battles. This became known as 'The 
First Relief of Lucknow', as this force was not strong enough to break 
the siege or extricate themselves, and so was forced to join the 
garrison. In October another, larger, army under the new 
Commander-in-Chief, Sir Colin Campbell, was finally able to relieve 
the garrison and on 18 November, they evacuated the defended enclave 
within the city, the women and children leaving first. They then 
conducted an orderly withdrawal to Cawnpore, where they defeated an 
attempt by Tantya Tope to recapture the city in the Second Battle of 
Cawnpore. 

Early in 1858, Campbell once again advanced on Lucknow with a 

large army, this time seeking to suppress the rebellion in Awadh. He 

was aided by a large Nepalese contingent advancing from the north 

under Jang Bahadur, who decided to side with the Company in 

December 1857. Campbell's advance was slow and methodical, and 

drove the large but disorganised rebel army from Lucknow with few 

casualties to his own troops. This nevertheless allowed large numbers 

of the rebels to disperse into Awadh, and Campbell was forced to 

spend the summer and autumn dealing with scattered pockets of resistance while losing men to heat, disease and 

guerrilla actions. 



Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence, British 

Commissioner of Oudh who died during the siege 

of Lucknow. 




Secundra Bagh after the slaughter of 2,000 

Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab 

Regiment. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 

1858. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



16 




This sketch of Lucknow's Alam Bagh was made by 
Late CH Mecham on 25 December 1857 while fierce 
fighting raged on, as that time the Revolt of 1857 was 

going on. In a note at the bottom of the sketch, the 

artist wishes "my future readers many happy returns of 

this festive season". 



Jhansi 

Jhansi was a Maratha-ruled princely state in Bundelkhand. When 
the Raja of Jhansi died without a biological male heir in 1853, it 
was annexed to the British Raj by the Governor-General of India 
under the doctrine of lapse. His widow, Rani Lakshmi Bai, 
protested against the denial of rights of their adopted son. 



When war broke out, Jhansi quickly became a centre of the rebellion. 
A small group of Company officials and their families took refuge in 
Jhansi's fort, and the Rani negotiated their evacuation. However, when 
they left the fort they were massacred by the rebels over whom the 
Rani had no control; the Europeans suspected the Rani of complicity, 
despite her repeated denials. 




The Jhansi Fort, which was taken over by rebel 

forces, and subsequently defended against British 

recapture by the Rani of Jhansi. 




By the end of June 1857, the Company had lost control of much of 
Bundelkhand and eastern Rajasthan. The Bengal Army units in the 
area, having rebelled, marched to take part in the battles for Delhi 
and Cawnpore. The many princely states which made up this area 
began warring amongst themselves. In September and October 
1857, the Rani led the successful defence of Jhansi against the 
invading armies of the neighbouring rajas of Datia and Orchha. 



On 3 February Rose broke the 3-month siege of Saugor. 
Thousands of local villagers welcomed him as a liberator, freeing 
them from rebel occupation. 

In March 1858, the Central India Field Force, led by Sir Hugh 
Rose, advanced on and laid siege to Jhansi. The Company forces 
captured the city, but the Rani fled in disguise. 

After being driven from Jhansi and Kalpi, on 1 June 1858 Rani 
Lakshmi Bai and a group of Maratha rebels captured the fortress 
city of Gwalior from the Scindia rulers, who were British allies. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



17 



This might have reinvigorated the rebellion but the Central India Field Force very quickly advanced against the city. 
The Rani died on 17 June, the second day of the Battle of Gwalior probably killed by a carbine shot from the 8th 
Hussars, according to the account of three independent Indian representatives. The Company forces recaptured 
Gwalior within the next three days. In descriptions of the scene of her last battle, she was compared to Joan Of Arc 
by some commentators. 

Indore 

Colonel Henry Durand, the then Company resident at Indore had brushed away any possibility of uprising in 
Indore. However, on 1 July, sepoys in Holkar's army revolted and opened fire on the pickets of Bhopal Cavalry. 
When Colonel Travers rode forward to charge, Bhopal Cavalry refused to follow. The Bhopal Infantry also refused 
orders and instead leveled their guns at European sergeants and officers. Since all possibility of mounting an 
effective deterrent was lost, Durand decided to gather up all the European residents and escape, although 39 



European residents of Indore were killed 



[102] 



Other regions 



Punjab 




Execution of mutineers at Peshawur 



troops. 



What was then referred to by the British as the Punjab was a very large 
administrative division, centred on Lahore. It included not only the 
present-day Indian and Pakistani Punjabi regions but also the North 
West Frontier districts bordering Afghanistan. 

Much of the region had been the Sikh Empire, ruled by Ranjit Singh 
until his death in 1839. The kingdom had then fallen into disorder, with 
court factions and the Khalsa (the Sikh army) contending for power at 
the Lahore Durbar (court). After two Anglo-Sikh Wars, the entire 
region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849. In 1857, the 
region still contained the highest numbers of both European and Indian 



The inhabitants of the Punjab were not as sympathetic to the sepoys as they were elsewhere in India, which limited 
many of the outbreaks in the Punjab to disjointed uprisings by regiments of sepoys isolated from each other. In some 
garrisons, notably Ferozepore, indecision on the part of the senior European officers allowed the sepoys to rebel, but 
the sepoys then left the area, mostly heading for Delhi. " At the most important garrison, that of Peshawar close to 
the Afghan frontier, many comparatively junior officers ignored their nominal commander (the elderly General 
Reed) and took decisive action. They intercepted the sepoys' mail, thus preventing their coordinating an uprising, and 
formed a force known as the "Punjab Movable Column" to move rapidly to suppress any revolts as they occurred. 
When it became clear from the intercepted correspondence that some of the sepoys at Peshawar were on the point of 
open revolt, the four most disaffected Bengal Native regiments were disarmed by the two British infantry regiments 
in the cantonment, backed by artillery, on 22 May. This decisive act induced many local chieftains to side with the 
British." 041 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



18 



Jhelum in Punjab was also a centre of resistance against the British. 
Here 35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment (South Wales 
Borderers), died on 7 July 1857. To commemorate this victory St. 
John's Church Jhelum was built and the names of those 35 British 
soldiers are carved on a marble lectern present in that church. 

The final large-scale military uprising in the Punjab took place on 9 
July, when most of a brigade of sepoys at Sialkot rebelled and began to 
move to Delhi. They were intercepted by John Nicholson with an equal 
British force as they tried to cross the Ravi River. After fighting 
steadily but unsuccessfully for several hours, the sepoys tried to fall 
back across the river but became trapped on an island. Three days later, 
Nicholson annihilated the 1,100 trapped sepoys in the Battle of 



Trimmu Ghat 



[105] 




Marble Lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers 
in Jhelum 



Some regiments in frontier garrisons subsequently rebelled, but 

became isolated among hostile Pakhtun villages and tribes. There were 

several mass executions, amounting to several hundred, of sepoys from 

units which rebelled or who deserted in the Punjab and North West 

Frontier provinces during June and July . The British had been recruiting irregular units from Sikh and Pakhtun 

communities even before the first unrest among the Bengal units, and the numbers of these were greatly increased 

during the Rebellion, 34,000 fresh levies eventually being raised. 

At one stage, faced with the need to send troops to reinforce the besiegers of Delhi, the Commissioner of the Punjab 
(Sir John Lawrence) suggested handing the coveted prize of Peshawar to Dost Mohammed Khan of Afghanistan in 
return for a pledge of friendship. The British Agents in Peshawar and the adjacent districts were horrified. Referring 
to the massacre of a retreating British army in 1840, Herbert Edwardes wrote, "Dost Mahomed would not be a mortal 
Afghan ... if he did not assume our day to be gone in India and follow after us as an enemy. Europeans cannot retreat 



Kabul would come again 



,,[107] 



In the event Lord Canning insisted on Peshawar being held, and Dost Mohammed, 



whose relations with Britain had been equivocal for over 20 years, remained neutral. 

In September 1858 Rae Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal, head of the Khurrul tribe, led an insurrection in the Neeli Bar 
district, between the Sutlej, Ravi and Chenab rivers. The rebels held the jungles of Gogaira and had some initial 
successes against the British forces in the area, besieging Major Crawford Chamberlain at Chichawatni. A squadron 
of Punjabi cavalry sent by Sir John Lawrence raised the siege. Ahmed Khan was killed but the insurgents found a 
new leader in Mir Bahawal Fatwanah, who maintained the uprising for three months until Government forces 
penetrated the jungle and scattered the rebel tribesmen 



[108] 



Jaunpur 

Landlords of the Raghuvamsha clan of Rajputs; Taluqa-Dobhi, District — Jaunpur; played a prominent part in the 
Rebellion. On hearing of the uprisings against British rule in the surrounding districts of Ghazipur, Azamgarh and 
Banaras, the Rajputs of Dobhi organised themselves into an armed force and attacked the Company all over the 
region. They also cut the Company communications along the Banaras- Azamgarh road and advanced towards the 
former Banaras State. 

In the first encounter with the British regular troops, the Rajputs suffered heavy losses, but withdrew in order. 
Regrouping themselves, they made a bid to capture Banaras. In the meantime, Azamgarh had been besieged by 
another large force of rebels. The Company was unable to send reinforcement to Azamgarh due to the challenge 
posed by the Dobhi Rajputs. A clash became inevitable and the Company attacked the Rajputs with the help of the 
Sikhs and the Hindustani cavalry at the end of June 1857. The Rajputs were handicapped as the torrential monsoon 
rains soaked their supplies of gun-powder. The Rajputs, however, bitterly opposed the Company advance with 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



19 



swords and spears and the few serviceable guns and muskets that they had. The battle took place about 5 miles North 
of Banaras at a place called Pisnaharia-ka-Inar. The Rajputs were driven back with heavy losses across the Gomti 
river. The British army crossed the river and sacked every Rajput village in the area. 

A few months later, Kunwar Singh of Jagdispur (District Arrah, Bihar), advanced and occupied Azamgarh. The 
Banaras Army sent against him was defeated outside Azamgarh. The Company rushed reinforcements and there was 
a furious battle in which the Rajputs of Dobhi helped Kunwar Singh, their distant relative. Kunwar Singh had to 
withdraw and the Rajputs became the subject of cruel reprisals by the Company. The leaders of the Dobhi Rajputs 
were invited to a conference and treacherously arrested by the Company troops which had surrounded the place in 
Senapur village in May 1858. All were summarily executed by hanging from a mango tree, along with nine of their 
other followers. The dead bodies were further shot with muskets and left hanging from the trees. After few days, the 
bodies were taken down by the villagers and cremated. 



Arrah 

Kunwar Singh, the 75 year old Rajput Raja of Jagdispur, whose estate was in the process of being sequestrated by 
the Revenue Board, instigated and assumed the leadership of revolt in Bihar. 

On 25 July, rebellion erupted in the garrisons of Dinapur. The rebels quickly moved towards the cities of Arrah and 
were joined by Kunwar Singh and his men. Mr. Boyle, a British railway engineer in Arrah, had already prepared his 
house for defense against such attacks-particular because he was a railway engineer. As the rebels approached 
Arrah, all European residents took refuge at Mr. Boyle's house. A siege soon ensued and 50 loyal sepoys defended 
the house against artillery and musketry fire from the rebels. 

On 29 July 400 men were sent out from Dinapore to relieve Arrah, but this force was ambushed by the rebels around 
a mile away from the siege house, severely defeated, and driven back. On 30 July, Major Vincent Eyre, who was 
going up the river with his troops and guns, reached Buxar and heard about the siege. He immediately disembarked 
his guns and troops (the 5th Fusiliers) and started marching towards Arrah. On 2 August, some 16 miles (unknown 
operator: u'strong 1 km) short of Arrah, the Major was ambushed by the rebels. After an intense fight, the 5th 
Fusiliers charged and stormed the rebel positions successfully. On 3 August, Major Eyre and his men reached the 



siege house and successfully ended the siege 



[112] 



British Empire 

The authorities in British colonies with an Indian population, sepoy or civilian, took measures to secure themselves 
against copycat uprisings. In the Straits Settlements, and Trinidad the annual Hosay processions were banned, 
riots broke out in penal settlements in Burma, and the Settlements, in Penang the loss of a musket provoked a near 
riot, and security was boosted especially in locations with an Indian convict population. 



Aftermath 

From the end of 1857, the British had begun to gain 
ground again. Lucknow was retaken in March 1858. On 
8 July 1858, a peace treaty was signed and the rebellion 
ended. The last rebels were defeated in Gwalior on 20 
June 1858. By 1859, rebel leaders Bakht Khan and 
Nana Sahib had either been slain or had fled. 

The rebels murder of women, children and wounded 
British soldiers at Cawnpore, and the subsequent 




Indian Rebellion of 1857 



20 



printing of the events in the British papers, left many 
British soldiers seeking revenge. As well as hanging 
mutineers, the British had some "blown from cannon" 
(an old Mughal punishment adopted many years before 
in India). Sentenced rebels were tied over the mouths of 
cannons and blown to pieces when the gun was 
fired. 



[116] 




British soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh, Lucknow, after its recapture 
(steel engraving, late 1850s) 



Most of the British press, outraged by the reports of 
rape and the killings of civilians and wounded British 
soldiers, did not advocate clemency of any kind. 
Governor General Canning ordered moderation in 
dealing with native sensibilities and earned the scornful 
sobriquet "Clemency Canning" from the public. 

In terms of sheer numbers, the casualties were much 
higher on the Indian side. A letter published after the 
fall of Delhi in the "Bombay Telegraph" and 
reproduced in the British press testified to the scale of 
the Indian casualties: 




Blowing from Guns in British India (1884) by Vasily Vereshchagin. 

Note this painting depicts events of 1857 with soldiers wearing (then 

current) uniforms of the 1880s. 



.... All the city's people found within the 

walls of the city of Delhi when our troops 

entered were bayoneted on the spot, and 

the number was considerable, as you may suppose, when I tell you that in some houses forty and fifty 

people were hiding. These were not mutineers but residents of the city, who trusted to our well-known 

mild rule for pardon. I am glad to say they were disappointed. 

Edward Vibart, a 19-year-old officer, recorded his experience: 

It was literally murder... I have seen many bloody and awful sights lately but such a one as I witnessed 
yesterday I pray I never see again. The women were all spared but their screams on seeing their husbands and 
sons butchered, were most painful... Heaven knows I feel no pity, but when some old grey bearded man is 
brought and shot before your very eyes, hard must be that man's heart I think who can look on with 
indifference... 

Some British troops adopted a policy of "no prisoners". One officer, Thomas Lowe, remembered how on one 
occasion his unit had taken 76 prisoners — they were just too tired to carry on killing and needed a rest, he recalled. 
Later, after a quick trial, the prisoners were lined up with a British soldier standing a couple of yards in front of 
them. On the order "fire", they were all simultaneously shot, "swept... from their earthly existence". 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



21 



The aftermath of the rebellion has been the focus of 
new work using Indian sources and population studies. 
In The Last Mughal, historian William Dalrymple 
examines the effects on the Muslim population of Delhi 
after the city was retaken by the British and finds that 
intellectual and economic control of the city shifted 
from Muslim to Hindu hands because the British, at 
that time, saw an Islamic hand behind the mutiny 



[118 




: ■: I.; I:" i ' i 



Forced disarmament of cavalry of Berhampore 



Reaction in Britain 

The scale of the punishments handed out by the British "Army of 
Retribution" were considered largely appropriate and justified in 
a Britain shocked by reports of atrocities carried out on British 
and European civilians, and local Christians by the rebels 
Accounts of the time frequently reach the "hyperbolic register", 
according to Christopher Herbert, especially in the often-repeated 
claim that the "Red Year" of 1857 marked "a terrible break" in 
British experience. Such was the atmosphere — a national 

"mood of retribution and despair" that led to "almost universal 
approval" of the measures taken to pacify the revolt. 

The incidents of rape committed by Indian rebels against 

European women and girls appalled the British public. These 

atrocities were often used to justify the British reaction to the 

rebellion. British newspapers printed various eyewitness accounts 

of the rape of English women and girls. One such account 

published by The Times, regarding an incident where 48 English 

girls as young as 10 had been raped by Indian rebels in Delhi. 

Karl Marx later claimed that this was propaganda stating that the 

account was written by a clergyman in Bangalore, far from the 

events of the rebellion, but produced no evidence to support this 

allegation. Individual incidents captured the public's interest and were heavily reported by the press. One such 

incident was that of General Wheeler's daughter Margaret being forced to live as her captor's concubine, though this 

was reported to the Victorian public as Margaret killing her rapist then herself. Another version of the story 

suggested that Margaret had been killed after her abductor had argued with his wife over her. 




.1 a STICK. 

Justice, a print by Sir John Tenniel in an September 
issue of Punch. 



[123] 



ri24i 

The term 'Sepoy' or 'Sepoyism' became a derogatory term for nationalists especially in Ireland. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



22 




Bahadur Shah Zafar (the last Mughal emperor) 

exiled in Rangoon. Photograph by Robert Tytler 

and Charles Shepherd, May 1858. 



Reorganization 

Bahadur Shah was tried for treason by a military commission 
assembled at Delhi, and exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862, 
bringing the Mughal dynasty to an end. In 1877 Queen Victoria took 
the title of Empress of India on the advice of Prime Minister, Benjamin 
Disraeli. 

The rebellion saw the end of the British East India Company's rule in 

India. In August, by the Government of India Act 1858, the company 

was formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were 

transferred to the British Crown. A new British government 

department, the India Office, was created to handle the governance of 

India, and its head, the Secretary of State for India, was entrusted with 

formulating Indian policy. The Governor-General of India gained a 

new title (Viceroy of India), and implemented the policies devised by the India Office. Some former East India 

Company territories, such as the Straits Settlements, became colonies in their own right. The British colonial 

administration embarked on a program of reform, trying to integrate Indian higher castes and rulers into the 

government and abolishing attempts at Westernization. The Viceroy stopped land grabs, decreed religious tolerance 

and admitted Indians into civil service, albeit mainly as subordinates. 

Essentially the old East India Company bureaucracy remained, though there was a major shift in attitudes. In looking 
for the causes of the Mutiny the authorities alighted on two things: religion and the economy. On religion it was felt 
that there had been too much interference with indigenous traditions, both Hindu and Muslim. On the economy it 
was now believed that the previous attempts by the Company to introduce free market competition had undermined 
traditional power structures and bonds of loyalty placing the peasantry at the mercy of merchants and money-lenders. 
In consequence the new British Raj was constructed in part around a conservative agenda, based on a preservation of 
tradition and hierarchy. 

On a political level it was also felt that the previous lack of consultation between rulers and ruled had been yet 
another significant factor in contributing to the uprising. In consequence, Indians were drawn into government at a 
local level. Though this was on a limited scale a crucial precedent had been set, with the creation of a new 'white 
collar' Indian elite, further stimulated by the opening of universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, a result of the 
Indian Universities Act. So, alongside the values of traditional and ancient India, a new professional middle class 
was starting to arise, in no way bound by the values of the past. Their ambition can only have been stimulated by 
Victoria's Proclamation of November 1858, in which it is expressly stated that "We hold ourselves bound to the 
natives of our Indian territories by the same obligations of duty which bind us to our other subjects. ..it is our further 
will that... our subjects of whatever race or creed, be freely and impartially admitted to offices in our service, the 
duties of which they may be qualified by their education, ability and integrity, duly to discharge." 

Acting on these sentiments, Lord Ripon, viceroy from 1880 to 1885, extended the powers of local self-government 
and sought to remove racial practices in the law courts by the Ilbert Bill. But a policy at once liberal and progressive 
at one turn was reactionary and backward at the next, creating new elites and confirming old attitudes. The Ilbert Bill 
only had the effect of causing a White mutiny, and the end of the prospect of perfect equality before the law. In 1886 
measures were adopted to restrict Indian entry into the civil service. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 23 

Military reorganization 

The Bengal army dominated the Indian army before 1857 and a direct result after the rebellion was the scaling back 
of the size of the Bengali contingent in the army. The Brahmin presence in the Bengal Army was reduced in the 
late nineteenth century because of their perceived primary role as mutineers. The British looked for increased 
recruitment in the Punjab for the Bengal army as a result of the apparent discontent that resulted in the Sepoy 
conflict. 

The rebellion transformed both the "native" and European armies of British India. Of the 74 regular Bengal Native 

M271 

Infantry regiments in existence at the beginning of 1857 only twelve escaped mutiny or disbandment. All ten of 
the Bengal Light Cavalry regiments were lost. The old Bengal Army had accordingly almost completely vanished 
from the order of battle. These troops were replaced by new units recruited from castes hitherto under-utilised by the 
British and from the minority so-called "Martial Races", such as the Sikhs and the Gurkhas. 

The inefficiencies of the old organisation, which had estranged sepoys from their British officers, were addressed, 
and the post-1857 units were mainly organised on the "irregular" system. Before the rebellion each Bengal Native 
Infantry regiment had 26 British officers, who held every position of authority down to the second-in-command of 
each company. In irregular units there were few European officers who associated themselves far more closely with 
their soldiers, while more responsibility was given to the Indian officers. 

The British increased the ratio of British to Indian soldiers within India. From 1861 Indian artillery was replaced by 

n 2Ri 
British units, except for a few mountain batteries. The post-rebellion changes formed the basis of the military 

organisation of British India until the early 20th century. 

Nomenclature 

There is no universally agreed name for the events of this period. 

In India and Pakistan it has been termed as the "War of Independence of 1857" or "First War of Indian 

ri29i 
Independence" but it is not uncommon to use terms such as the "Revolt of 1857". The classification of the 

Rebellion being "First War of Independence" is not without its critics in India. The use of the term 

"Indian Mutiny" is considered by some Indian politicians as belittling the importance of what happened and 

therefore reflecting an imperialistic attitude. Others dispute this interpretation. 

In the UK and parts of the Commonwealth it is commonly called the "Indian Mutiny", but terms such as "Great 
Indian Mutiny", the "Sepoy Mutiny", the "Sepoy Rebellion", the "Sepoy War", the "Great Mutiny", the "Rebellion of 

1857", "the Uprising", the "Mahomedan Rebellion", and the "Revolt of 1857" have also been used. "The 

n 38i 
Indian Insurrection" was a name used in the press of the UK and British colonies at the time. 

Historiography 

Adas (1971) examines the historiography with emphasis on the four major approaches: the Indian nationalist view; 

r 1391 

the Marxist analysis; the view of the Mutiny as a traditionalist rebellion; and intensive studies of local uprisings. 
Many of the key primary and secondary sources appear in Biswamoy Pati, ed. 1857 Rebellion (Oxford India, 
2010). [140] 

Professor Kim Wagner has the most recent survey of the historiography, and stresses the importance of William 
Dalrymple's The Last Mughal: The Fall of a Dynasty, Delhi 1857 (2006) for its "richly detailed account of the period 
during which the erstwhile Mughal capital was in the hands of the rebels." He was assisted by Mahmood Farooqui, 
translated key Urdu and Shikastah sources and published a selection in Besieged: Voices from Delhi 1857. (Delhi: 
Penguin, 2010). Dalrymple emphasized the role of religion, and explored in detail the internal divisions and 
politico-religious discord amongst the rebels. He did not discover much in the way of proto-nationalism or any of the 
roots of modern India in the rebellion. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 24 

Almost from the moment the first sepoys mutinied in Meerut, the nature and the scope of the Indian Rebellion of 
1857 has been contested and argued over. Speaking in the House of Commons in July 1857, Benjamin Disraeli 
labeled it a 'national revolt' while Lord Palmerston, the Prime Minister, tried to downplay the scope and the 
significance of the event as a 'mere military mutiny'. Reflecting this debate, the early historian of the rebellion, 

Charles Ball, sided with the mutiny in his title (using mutiny and sepoy insurrection) but labeled it a 'struggle for 

ri44i 
liberty and independence as a people' in the text. Historians remain divided on whether the rebellion can 

properly be considered a war of Indian independence or not, although it is popularly considered to be one in 

India. Arguments against include: 

• A united India did not exist at that time in political, cultural, or ethnic terms 

• The rebellion was put down with the help of other Indian soldiers drawn from the Madras Army, the Bombay 
Army and the Sikh regiments, 80% of the East India Company forces were Indian; 

• Many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British. 

• Many rebel Sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight. 

• Not all of the rebels accepted the return of the Moghuls. 

• The King of Delhi had no real control over the mutineers. 

• The revolt was largely limited to north and central India. Whilst risings occurred elsewhere they had little impact 
due to their limited nature. 

• A number of revolts occurred in areas not under British rule, and against native rulers, often as a result of local 
internal politics. 

• The revolt was fractured along religious, ethnic and regional lines. 

A second school of thought while acknowledging the validity of the above-mentioned arguments opines that this 
rebellion may indeed be called a war of India's independence. The reasons advanced are: 

• Even though the rebellion had various causes (e.g. Sepoy grievances, British high-handedness, the Doctrine of 
Lapse etc.), most of the rebel sepoys who were able to do so, made their way to Delhi to revive the old Mughal 
empire that signified a national symbol for even the Hindus amongst them. 

The hanging of two participants in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1858 

• There was a widespread popular revolt in many areas such as Awadh, Bundelkhand and Rohilkhand. The 
rebellion was therefore more than just a military rebellion, and it spanned more than one region; 

• The sepoys did not seek to revive small kingdoms in their regions, instead they repeatedly proclaimed a 
"country-wide rule" of the Moghuls and vowed to drive out the British from "India", as they knew it then. (The 
sepoys ignored local princes and proclaimed in cities they took over: Khalq Khuda Ki, Mulk Badshah Ka, 
Hukm Subahdar Sipahi Bahadur Ka — i.e. the people belong to God, the country to the Emperor and authority 
to the Sepoy Commandant). The objective of driving out "foreigners" from not only one's own area but from their 
conception of the entirety of "India", signifies a nationalist sentiment; 

ri49i 

• The mutineers, although some were recruited from outside Oudah, displayed a common purpose. 

The 150th anniversary 

The Government of India celebrated the year 2007 as the 150th anniversary of "India's First War of Independence". 
Several books written by Indian authors were released in the anniversary year including Amresh Mishra's "War of 
Civilizations" a controversial history of the Rebellion of 1857, and "Recalcitrance" by Anurag Kumar, one of the few 
novels written in English by an Indian based on the events of 1857. 

In 2007, a group of retired British soldiers and civilians, some of them descendants of British soldiers who died in 
the conflict, attempted to visit the site of the Siege of Lucknow. However, fears of violence by Indian demonstrators, 
supported by the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, prevented the British visitors from visiting the site. 
Despite the protests, Sir Mark Havelock was able to make his way past police in order to visit the grave of his 
ancestor, General Henry Havelock. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 25 

In popular culture 

Ketan Mehta's Hindi film, Mangal Pandey: The Rising (2005) is about the life of Mangal Pandey, an Indian soldier 
who is known for his role in rebellion. The historical play 1857: Ek Safarnama by Javed Siddiqui is set Rebellion of 
1857, which was also stage at Purana Qila, Delhi ramparts by Nadira Babbar and National School of Drama 
Repertory company, in 2008. 

Notes 

[I] Bandyopadhyay 2004, pp. 169—172 Bose & Jalal 2003, pp. 88—103 Quote: "The 1857 rebellion was by and large confined to northern Indian 
Gangetic Plain and central India.", Brown 1994, pp. 85-87, and Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 100-106 

[2] Bayly 1990, p. 170 Quote: "What distinguished the events of 1857 was their scale and the fact that for a short time they posed a military 

threat to British dominance in the Ganges Plain." 
[3] Spear 1990, pp. 147-148 

[4] Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 177, Bayly 2000, p. 357 
[5] Brown 1994, p. 94 
[6] Bayly 1990, pp. 194-197 

[7] http://www.hindu.com/mag/2006/08/06/stories/2006080600360400.htm TheHindu August-2006 
[8] Ludden 2002, p. 133 

[9] Mazumder, Rajit K. (2003), The Indian Army and the Making of the Punjab, Permanent Black, pp. 7-8, ISBN 81-7824-059-9 
[10] Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 61 

[II] Brown 1994, p. 88 
[12] Metcalf 1990, p. 48 

[13] Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 171, Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 90 

[14] Essential histories, The Indian Mutiny 1857—1858, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page25 

[15] A Matter of Honour - an Account of the Indian Army, its Officers and Men, Philip Mason, ISBN 0-333-41837-9, page 261 

[16] From Sepoy to Subedar — Being the Life and Adventures of Subedar Sita Ram, a Native Officer of the Bengal Army, edited by James Lunt, 

ISBN 0-333-45672-6, page 172 
[17] "The Indian Mutiny" (http://www.britishempire.co.uk/forces/armycampaigns/indiancampaigns/mutiny/mutiny.htm). . 
[18] http://www. britishempire. co. uk/forces/armycampaigns/india/campaigns/mutiny/mutiny. htm 
[19] Headrick, Daniel R. "The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century". Oxford University Press, 

1981, p.88 
[20] Kim A. Wagner (2010). The great fear of 1857: rumours, conspiracies and the making of the Indian Mutiny (http://books.google.co.in/ 

books ?id=35sGgU8A4CEC&pg=PA28). Peter Lang. . The only troops to be armed with the Enfield rifle, and hence the greased cartridges, 

were the British HM 60th Rifles stationed at Meerut, 
[21] Kaye's and Malleson's history of the Indian mutiny of 1857— 8 (http://books.google.com/books?id=mioKAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA381& 

lpg=PA381&dq=Gangadarh+Banerji+company&source=bl&ots=Vd0wIYxf3J&sig=BdcTmGnTDyuopB_XpHzBAYwr9B8&hl=en& 

ei=ltR7TqGDNcbTiAKH9cS_Bw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&sqi=2&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& 

q=Gangadarh Banerji company&f=false). London: W. H. Allen & Co. 1888. pp. 381. . 
[22] Hibbert 1980, p. 63 
[23] David 2003, p. 53 
[24] David 2003, p. 54 

[25] Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 172, Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 91, Brown 1994, p. 92 
[26] Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 172 
[27] Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 102 

[28] Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 91, Metcalf 1991, Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 173 
[29] Brown 1994, p. 92 
[30] Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, Lloyd I Rudolph. "Living with Difference in India", The Political Quarterly.il (si) (2000), 20—38. 

doi:10.1111/1467-923X.71.sl.4 
[31] Pionke, Albert D. (2004), Plots of opportunity: representing conspiracy in Victorian England, Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 

pp. 82, ISBN 0-8142-0948-3 
[32] Rudolph, L.I.; Rudolph, S.H. (1997), "Occidentalism and Orientalism: Perspectives on Legal Pluralism", Cultures of Scholarship 
[33] Embree, Ainslee in Helmstadter, Richard J.; Webb, R. K.; Davis, Richard (eds.) (1992), Religion and irreligion in Victorian society: essays 

in honor of R. K. Webb, New York: Routledge, pp. 152, ISBN 0-415-07625-0 
[34] Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Indian Mutiny 1857—58 (Essential Histories), Reading: Osprey Publishing, pp. 9, ISBN 1-84603-209-1 
[35] Bayly, C. A. (1996), Empire and information: intelligence gathering and social communication in India, 1780—1870, Cambridge, UK: 

Cambridge University Press, pp. 331, ISBN 0-521-66360-1 
[36] Seema Alavi The Sepoys and the Company (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1998 p. 5 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 



26 



[37 
[38 



[39 
[40 
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[42 
[43 
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[45 
[46 
[47 
[48 
[49 

[50 
[51 
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[62 
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[72 
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[86 



Hibbertl980, pp. 51-54 

Memorandum from Lieutenant-Colonel W. St. L. Mitchell (CO of the 19th BNI) to Major A. H. Ross about his troop's refusal to accept the 
Enfield cartridges, 27 February 1857, Archives of Project South Asia, South Dakota State University and Missouri Southern State University 
(http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/docs/history/primarydocs/War of 1857/Indian Mutiny— Chl/letter 31.htm) 

David 2003, p. 69 

"The Indian Mutiny of 1857", Col. G. B. Malleson, reprint 2005, Rupa & Co. Publishers, New Delhi 

Durendra Nath Sen, page 50 Eighteen Fifty-Seven, The Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of 
ndia, May 1957 

Hibbert 1980, pp. 73-75 

Mason, Philip, A Matter of Honour - an Account of the Indian Army, p. 278, ISBN 0-333-41837-9 

Singh, Nau Nihal (2003), The royal Gurjars: their contribution to India (http://books. google. com/?id=BznWnPT5aYcC&pg=PA339& 
pg=PA339&dq=dhan+singh+kotwal#v=onepage&q=dhan singh&f=false), Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., p. 339, 
SBN 978-81-261-1414-6, 

http://www.lib.mq.edu.aU/digital/lema/glossaries/india.html#b 

Hibbert 1980, pp. 80-85 

Sir John Kaye & G.B. Malleson.: The Indian Mutiny of 1857, (Delhi: Rupa & Co.) reprint 2005 p49 

Bhartiya Sanskriti Ke Rakshak by Dr. Ratan LalL Verma 

Dr. Surendra Nath Sen, pages 71—73 "Eighteen Fifty-Seven", Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government 
of India 

Hibbert 1980, pp. 98-101 

Hibbert 1980, pp. 93-95 

Dalrymple, The Last Moghul, pp.223— 224 

Hibbert 1980, pp. 152-163 

Michael Edwardes, Battles of the Indian Mutiny, pp 52—53 

Indian mutiny was 'war of religion' — BBC (http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/south_asia/5312092.stm) 

Dalrymple 2006, p. 23 

The Story of the Storm— 1857 (http://www.defencejournal.com/2002/may/storm.htm) 

Zachary Nunn. The British Raj (http://www.drake.edu/artsci/PolSci/ssjrnl/2001/nunn.html) 

Harris 2001, p. 57 

Kennedy Trevaskis, Hugh (1928). The Land of Five Rivers: An Economic History of the Punjab from Earliest Times to the Year of Grace 
1890. London: Oxford University Press, pp. 216—217. 

Harris 2001 

Indian Army Uniforms under the British — Infantry, W.Y. Carman, Morgan-Grampian Books 1969, page 107 

A.H. Amin, Pakistan Army Defence Journal (http://www.defencejournal.com/2001/august/sepoy.htm) 

A.H. Amin, Orbat.com (http://orbat.com/site/cimh/india/bengalarmyl857.html) 

Lessons from 1857 (http://www.newstodaynet.com/guest/210607gul.htm) 

The Indian Army: 1765 - 1914 (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Images-1765c.html) 

David 2003, p. 19 

The Indin Mutiny 1857—58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 34 

Dalrymple 2008, p. 23 

Nau Nihal Singh (2003), The royal Gurjars: their contribution to India (http://books.google.co. in/books?id=BznWnPT5aYcC& 
pg=PA341&dq), Anmol Publications PVT. LTD, p. 341, ISBN 978-81-261-1414-6, 

Stokes, Eric; Bayly, Christopher Alan (1986), The peasant armed: the Indian revolt of 1857, Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-821570-3 

Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 9 (http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405. l.I34_V09_056.gif), 
Digital South Asia Library, p. 50, , retrieved 31 May 2007 

Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (2008). "1857 ki Jung-e Azadi main Khandan ka hissa". Hayat Karam Husain (2nd ed.). Aligarh/India: Ibn Sina 
Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, pp. 253-258. ISBN 97889060706 . 

God's Acre (http://www.hindu.com/mp/2006/10/28/stories/2006102801590100.htm). The Hindu Metro Plus Delhi. 28 October 2006. 

The Rising: The Ballad of Mangal Pandey' (http://www.jonathanforeman.com/movies/mangal.html). Daily Mail, 27 August 2005 

essential histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857—58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 40 

Dalrymple 2006, p. 400 

The story of Cawnpore: The Indian Mutiny 1857, Capt. Mowbray Thomson, Brighton, Tom Donovan, 1859, pp. 148—159. 

Essential Histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857—58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 49 

S&T magazine No. 121 (September 1998), page 56 

Hibbert 1980, p. 191 

A History of the Indian Mutiny by G. W. Forrest, London, William Blackwood, 1904 

Kaye's and Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny. Longman's, London, 1896. Footnote, p. 257. 

Edwardes, Battles of the Indian Mutiny, p. 56 

David 2003, p. 250 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 27 

87] Harris 2001, p. 92 
88] Harris 2001, p. 95 

] Essential Histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857—58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 53 
90] S&T magazine No. 121 (September 1998), page 58 

91] John Harris, The Indian mutiny, Wordsworth military library 2001, page 92, 
92] J.W. Sherer, Daily Life during the Indian Mutiny, 1858, p. 56 

93] Andrew Ward, Our bones are scattered — The Cawnpore massacres and the Indian Mutiny of 1857, John Murray, 1996 
94] Ramson, Martin & Ramson, Edward, The Indian Empire, 1858 
95] Michael Edwardes, Battles of the Indian Mutiny, Pan, 1963 ISBN 330-02524-4 
96] Units of the Army of the Madras Presidency wore blue rather than black shakoes or forage caps 
97] Raugh, Harold E. (2004), The Victorians at War, 1815-1914: An Encyclopedia of British Military, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, p. 89, 

ISBN 978-1-57607-925-6, OCLC 54778450 
98] Hibbert 1980, p. 358,428 

99] Essential Histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857—58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 79 
100] Lachmi Bai Rani of Jhansi, the Jeanne dArc of India (1901), White, Michael (Michael Alfred Edwin), 1866, New York: J.F. Taylor & 

Company, 1901 
101] Biographies (http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/people_n2/women_n2/holkarl.html) 
102] (http://books.google.com/books?id=AIABAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA346&lpg=PA346&source=web&ots=HpuXNL187h& 

sig=SkMz3qIFfC8g4jYKfkaPVI6-i6U&hl=en#PPA333,Ml) 
103] Memoirs of Charles John Griffiths (http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10856/10856-8.txt) 
104] Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, p.276 
105] Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, pp. 290-293 
106] Hibbert, The Great Mutiny, p. 163 
107] Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, p.283 

108] Dr Surendra Nath Sen, pages 343—344 Eighteen Fifty-Seven, Ministry of Information, Government of India 1957 
109] WHO 'S WHO of INDIAN MARTYRS, Volume Three. Department of Culture. Ministry of Education and Social welfare. Government of 

India, New Delhi. The National Printing Works, Darya Ganj, Delhi, India 
110] (http://books.google.com/books?id=hcVGAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA76&lr=#PPA76,Ml) 
111] John Sergeant's Tracks of Empire, BBC4 programme. 
112] (http://books. google. com/books ?hl=en&id=pryl7f3SZ14C&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=qb8gFfBCsL& 

sig=iBGxGjWUfNlGj_DZHx3NGUepUH0#PPA181,Ml)(http://books.google.com/books?id=Ty8OAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA449& 

#PPA450,M1) 
113] Turnbull, CM 'Convicts in the Straits Settlements 1826—1827' in Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1970, 43, 1, 

P100 
114] Straits Times, 23 August 1857 

115] Arnold, D (1983) 'White colonization and labour in nineteenth-century India', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 11, P144 
116] Sahib: The British Soldier in India 1750-1914 Richard Holmes HarperCollins 2005 
117] Herbert, C. (2008), War of No Pity: The Indian Mutiny and Victorian Trauma, Princeton University Press 
118] Dalrymple 2006 

119] Chakravarty, G. (2004), The Indian Mutiny and the British Imagination, Cambridge University Press 
120] Judd, D. (2005), The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600-1947, Oxford University Press 

121] Beckman, Karen Redrobe (2003), Vanishing Women: Magic, Film, and Feminism, Duke University Press, pp. 33^, ISBN 0-8223-3074-1 
122] David 2003, pp. 220-222 

123] The Friend of India reprinted in South Australian Advertiser, 2 October 1860 
124] Bender, JC, Mutiny or Freedom Fight in Potter, SJ (ed) (2004) Newspapers and Empire in Ireland and Britain, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 

p. 105-106 
125] Rajit K. Mazumder, The Indian Army and the Making of the Punjab. (Delhi, Permanent Black, 2003), 11. 
126] Bickers, Robert A.; R. G. Tiedemann (2007), The Boxers, China, and the World, Rowman & Littlefield, p. 231(at p 63), 

ISBN 978-0-7425-5395-8 
127] W.Y. Carman, page 107 Indian Army Uniforms —Infantry, Morgan-Grampian London 1969 
128] Philip Mason, page 319 "A Matter of Honour", ISBN 0-333-41837-9 

129] First Indian War of Independence (http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/itihas/1857.htm) 8 January 1998 
130] A number of dispossessed dynasts, both Hindu and Muslim, exploited the well-founded caste-suspicions of the sepoys and made these 

simple folk their cat's paw in gamble for recovering their thrones. The last scions of the Delhi Mughals or the Oudh Nawabs and the Peshwa, 

can by no ingenuity be called fighters for Indian freedom Hindusthan Standard, Puja Annual, 195 p. 22 referenced in the Truth about the 

Indian mutiny article by Dr Ganda Singh 
[131] In the light of the available evidence, we are forced to the conclusion that the uprising of 1857 was not the result of careful planning, nor 

were there any master-minds behind it. As I read about the events of 1857, 1 am forced to the conclusion that the Indian national character had 

sunk very low. The leaders of the revolt could never agree. They were mutually jealous and continually intrigued against one another. ... In 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 28 

fact these personal jealousies and intrigues were largely responsible for the Indian defeat. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Surendranath Sen: 

Eighteen Fifty-seven (Appx. X & Appx. XV) 
[132] >Hasan 1998, p. 149 
[133] Nanda 1965, p. 701 
[134] Address at the Function marking the 150th Anniversary of the Revolt of 1857 (http://speakerloksabha.gov.in/speech/SpeechDetails. 

asp?SpeechId=172) 
[135] India's First War of Independence 1857 (http://www.gatewayforindia.com/history/british_history2.htm) 
[136] Le Monde article on the revolt (http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2007/08/DALRYMPLE/15000) 
[137] German National Geographic article (http://www.nationalgeographic.de/php/entdecken/wettbewerb2/forum.php3?command=show& 

id=3118&root=3052) 
[138] The Empire, Sydney, Australia, 1 1 July 1857, or Taranaki Herald, New Zealand, 29 August 1857 

[139] Michael Adas, "Twentieth Century Approaches to the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58," Journal of Asian History, 1971, Vol. 5 Issue 1, pp 1-19 
[140] It includes essays by historians Eric Stokes, Christopher Bayly, Rudrangshu Mukherjee, Tapti Roy, Rajat K. Ray and others. Biswamoy 

Pati (2010). The 1857 Rebellion (http://books. google.com/books ?id=NGqiSQAACAAJ). Oxford University Press. . 
[141] Kim A. Wagner, "The Marginal Mutiny: The New Historiography of the Indian Uprising of 1857," History Compass 9/10 (2011): 

760-766, quote p 760 doi: 10.1111/j.l478-0542.2011.00799.x 
[142] See also Kim A. Wagner (2010). The Great Fear Of 1857: Rumours, Conspiracies and the Making of the Indian Uprising (http://books. 

google.com/books ?id=35sGgU8A4CEC&pg=PR26). Peter Lang. p. 26. . 
[143] The Indian Mutiny and Victorian Trauma by Christopher Herbert, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2007 
[144] The History of the Indian Mutiny: Giving a detailed account of the sepoy insurrection in India by Charles Ball, The London Printing and 

Publishing Company, London, 1860 
[145] V.D. Savarkar argues that the rebellion was a war of Indian independence. The Indian War of Independence: 1857 (Bombay: 1947 [1909]). 

Most historians have seen his arguments as discredited, with one venturing so far as to say, 'It was neither first, nor national, nor a war of 

independence.' Eric Stokes has argued that the rebellion was actually a variety of movements, not one movement. The Peasant Armed 

(Oxford: 1980). See also S.B. Chaudhuri, Civil Rebellion in the Indian Mutinies 1857-1859" (Calcutta: 1957) 
[146] The Indian Mutiny, Spilsbury Julian, Orion, 2007 
[147] S&T magazine issue 121 (September 1988), page 20 
[148] The communal hatred led to ugly communal riots in many parts of U.P. The green flag was hoisted and Muslims in Bareilly, Bijnor, 

Moradabad, and other places the Muslims shouted for the revival of Muslim kingdom." R.C. Majumdar: Sepoy Mutiny and Revolt of 1857 

(page 2303-31) 
[149] Sitaram Yechury. The Empire Strikes Back (http://hindustantimes.com/news/181_1896809, 00120001. htm). Hindustan Times. January 

2006. 
[150] http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/south_asia/7009742.stm UK Indian Mutiny ceremony blocked 
[151] http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/south_asia/7014281.stm Briton visits India Mutiny grave 
[152] "A little peek into history" (http://www.hindu.com/fr/2008/05/02/stories/2008050250120300.htm). The Hindu (India). 2 May 2008. . 

References 

Text-books and academic monographs 

• Alavi, Seema (1996), The Sepoys and the Company: Tradition and Transition 1770—1830, Oxford University 
Press, p. 340, ISBN 0-19-563484-5. 

• Anderson, Clare (2007), Indian Uprising of 1857— 8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion (http://atlantis.terrassl. 
net/anthempress.com/product_info.php?cPath=52&products_id=293& 
osCsid=9a2s9o8mdu8066m551rr407123), New York: Anthem Press, pp. 217, ISBN 978-1-84331-249-9 . 

• Bandyopadhyay, Sekhara (2004), From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, New Delhi: Orient 
Longman, pp. 523, ISBN 81-250-2596-0. 

• Bayly, Chistopher Alan (1988), Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire, Cambridge University 
Press, pp. 230, ISBN 0-521-25092-7. 

• Bayly, Christopher Alan (2000), Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in 
India, c 1780-1870, Cambridge University Press, pp. 412, ISBN 0-521-57085-9. 

• Bose, Sugata; Jalal, Ayesha (2004), Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy (2nd ed.), London: 
Routledge, pp. 253, ISBN 0-415-30787-2. 

• Brown, Judith M. (1994), Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy (http://www.oup.com/uk/ 
catalogue/?ci=9780198731139) (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, pp. 480, ISBN 0-19-873113-2. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 29 

Harris, John (2001), The Indian Mutiny, Ware: Wordsworth Editions, pp. 205, ISBN 1-84022-232-8. 

Hibbert, Christopher (1980), The Great Mutiny: India 1857, London: Allen Lane, pp. 472, ISBN 0-14-004752-2. 

Judd, Denis (2004), The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600—1947, Oxford University 

Press, xiii, 280, ISBN 0-19-280358-1. 

Keene, Henry George (1883), Fifty-Seven. Some account of the administration of Indian Districts during the 

revolt of the Bengal Army, London: W.H. Allen, pp. 145. 

Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India (4th ed.), London: Routledge, xii, 448, 

ISBN 0-415-32920-5. 

Leasor, James (1956), The Red Fort (http://www.jamesleasor.com/the-red-fort/), London: W. Lawrie, pp. 377, 

ISBN 0-02-034200-4. 

Ludden, David (2002), India And South Asia: A Short History (http://www.oneworld-publications.com/ 

cgi-bin/cart/commerce.cgi?pid=145&log_pid=yes), Oxford: Oneworld, xii, 306, ISBN 1-85168-237-6. 

Majumdar, R.C.; Raychaudhuri, H.C.; Datta, Kalikinkar (1967), An Advanced History of India (3rd ed.), London: 

Macmillan, pp. 1126. 

Markovits, Claude, ed. (2004), A History of Modern India 1480-1950, London: Anthem, pp. 607, 

ISBN 1-84331-152-6. 

Metcalf, Barbara D.; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2006), A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed.), Cambridge 

University Press, pp. 337, ISBN 0-521-68225-8. 

Metcalf, Thomas R. (1990), The Aftermath of Revolt: India, 1857-1870, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 352, 

ISBN 81-85054-99-1. 

Metcalf, Thomas R. (1997), Ideologies of the Raj, Cambridge University Press, pp. 256, ISBN 0-521-58937-1. 

Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (2002), Awadh in Revolt 1857—1858: A Study of Popular Resistance (2nd ed.), London: 

Anthem, ISBN 1-84331-075-9. 

Palmer, Julian A.B. (1966), The Mutiny Outbreak at Meerut in 1857, Cambridge University Press, pp. 175, 

ISBN 0-521-05901-1. 

Ray, Rajat Kanta (2002), The Felt Community: Commonality and Mentality before the Emergence of Indian 

Nationalism, Oxford University Press, pp. 596, ISBN 0-19-565863-9. 

Robb, Peter (2002), A History of India, Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. 344, ISBN 0-333-69129-6. 

Roy, Tapti (1994), The politics of a popular uprising: Bundelkhand 1857, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 

pp. 291, ISBN 0-19-563612-0. 

Spear, Percival (1990), A History of India, Volume 2 (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5797476), 

New Delhi and London: Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-013836-8. 

Stanley, Peter (1998), White Mutiny: British Military Culture in India, 1825—1875, London: Hurst, pp. 314, 

ISBN 1-85065-330-5. 

Stein, Burton (2001), A History of India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 432, ISBN 0-19-565446-3. 

Stokes, Eric (1980), The Peasant and the Raj: Studies in Agrarian Society and Peasant Rebellion in Colonial 

India, Cambridge University Press, pp. 316, ISBN 0-521-29770-2. 

Stokes, Eric; Bayly, C.A. (ed.) (1986), The Peasant Armed: The Indian Revolt of 1857, Oxford: Clarendon, 

pp. 280, ISBN 0-19-821570-3. 

Taylor, P.J.O. (1997), What really happened during the mutiny: a day-by-day account of the major events of 

1857-1859 in India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 323, ISBN 0-19-564182-5. 

Wolpert, Stanley (2004), A New History of India (7th ed.), Oxford University Press, pp. 530, 

ISBN 0-19-516678-7. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 30 

Articles in journals and collections 

• Alavi, Seema (Feb., 1993), "The Company Army and Rural Society: The Invalid Thanah 1780—1830", Modern 
Asian Studies 27 (1): 147-178, doi:10.1017/S0026749X00016097, JSTOR 312880 

• Baker, David (1991), "Colonial Beginnings and the Indian Response: The Revolt of 1857—58 in Madhya 
Pradesh" , Modern Asian Studies 25 (3): 511-543, doi:10.1017/S0026749X00013913, JSTOR 312615 

• Blunt, Alison (July 2000), "Embodying war: British women and domestic defilement in the Indian "Mutiny", 
1857-8", Journal of Historical Geography 26 (3): 403-428, doi:10.1006/jhge.2000.0236 

• English, Barbara (Feb., 1994), "The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857" (http://links.jstor.org/ 
sici?sici=0031-2746(199402)0:142<169:TKMIII>2.0.CO;2-L), Past and Present (142): 169-178 

• Frykenberg, Robert E. (2001), "India to 1858", in Winks, Robin, Oxford History of the British Empire: 
Historiography, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 194-213, ISBN 0-19-924680-7 

• Hasan, Farhad (1998), "Review of Tapti Roy, The Politics of a Popular Uprising, OUP, 1994.", Social Scientist 26 
(1): 148-151. 

• Klein, Ira (2000), "Materialism, Mutiny and Modernization in British India" (http://links.jstor.org/ 
sici?sici=0026-749X(200007)34:3<545:MMAMIB>2.0.CO;2-I), Modern Asian Studies 34 (3): 545-580 

• Lahiri, Nayanjot (Jun., 2003), "Commemorating and Remembering 1857: The Revolt in Delhi and Its Afterlife", 
World Archaeology 35 (1): 35-60, doi: 10. 1080/0043824032000078072, JSTOR 3560211 

• Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (Aug., 1990), '"Satan Let Loose upon Earth': The Kanpur Massacres in India in the 
Revolt of 1857" (http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-2746(199008)0:128<92:"LLUET>2.0.CO;2-2), Past 
and Present (128): 92-1 16 

• Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (Feb., 1994), "The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857: Reply" (http:// 
links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-2746(199402)0:142<178:TKMIII>2.0.CO;2-J), Past and Present (142): 
178-189 

• Nanda, Krishan (1965), The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 1965), pp. 700-701, University of 
Utah on behalf of the Western Political Science Association. 

• Roy, Tapti (Feb., 1993), "Visions of the Rebels: A Study of 1857 in Bundelkhand", Modern Asian Studies 27 (1): 
205—228 (Special Issue: How Social, Political and Cultural Information Is Collected, Defined, Used and 
Analyzed), doi:10.1017/S0026749X00016115, JSTOR 312882 

• Stokes, Eric (Dec, 1969), "Rural Revolt in the Great Rebellion of 1857 in India: A Study of the Saharanpur and 
Muzaffarnagar Districts" (http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-246X(196912)12:4<606:RRITGR>2.0. 
CO;2-P), The Historical Journal 12 (4): 696-627 

• Washbrook, D. A. (2001), "India, 1818—1860: The Two Faces of Colonialism", in Porter, Andrew, Oxford 
History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 
pp. 395-421, ISBN 0-19-924678-5 

• Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (2008), "1857 ki Jung-e Azadi main Khandan ka hissa", Hay at Karam Husain (2nd 
ed.), Aligarh/India: Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, pp. 253-258, ISBN 97889060706 



Indian Rebellion of 1 857 31 

Other histories 

• Dalrymple, William (2006). The Last Mughal. Viking Penguin. ISBN 0-670-99925-3. 

• David, Saul (2003), The Indian Mutiny: 1857, London: Penguin Books, Pp. 528, ISBN 0-14-100554-8 

• Mishra, Amaresh. 2007. War of Civilisations: The Long Revolution (India AD 1857, 2 Vols.), ISBN 
978-81-291-1282-8 

• Ward, Andrew. Our Bones Are Scattered. New York: Holt & Co., 1996. 

First person accounts and classic histories 

• Barter, Captain Richard The Siege of Delhi. Mutiny memories of an old officer, London, The Folio Society, 1984. 

• Campbell, Sir Colin. Narrative of the Indian Revolt. London: George Vickers, 1858. 

• Collier, Richard. The Great Indian Mutiny. New York: Dutton, 1964. 

• Forrest, George W. A History of the Indian Mutiny, William Blackwood and Sons, London, 1904. (4 vols). 

• Fitchett, W.H., BA.,LL.D., A Tale of the Great Mutiny, Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1911. 

• Inglis, Julia Selina, Lady, 1833—1904, The Siege ofLucknow: a Diary (http://digital.library.upenn.edu/ 
women/inglis/lucknow/lucknow.html), London: James R. Osgood, Mcllvaine & Co., 1892. Online at A 
Celebration of Women Writers, (http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/writers.html) 

• Innes, Lt. General McLeod: The Sepoy Revolt, A.D. Innes & Co., London, 1897. 

• Kaye, John William. A History of the Sepoy War In India (3 vols). London: W.H. Allen & Co., 1878. 

• Kaye, Sir John & Malleson, G.B.: The Indian Mutiny of 1857, Rupa & Co., Delhi, (1st edition 1890) reprint 2005. 

• Khan, Syed Ahmed (1859), Asbab-e Baghawat-e Hind, Translated as The Causes of the Indian Revolt, Allahabad, 
1873 

• Malleson, Colonel GB. The Indian Mutiny of 1857. New York: Scribner & Sons, 1891. 

• Marx, Karl & Freidrich Engels. The First Indian War of Independence 1857—1859. Moscow: Foreign Languages 
Publishing House, 1959. 

• Pandey, Sita Ram, From Sepoy to Subedar, Being the Life and Adventures of Subedar Sita Ram, a Native Officer 
of the Bengal Native Army, Written and Related by Himself, trans. Lt. Col. Norgate, (Lahore: Bengal Staff Corps, 
1873), ed. James Lunt, (Delhi: Vikas Publications, 1970). 

• Raikes, Charles: Notes on the Revolt in the North-Western Provinces of India, Longman, London, 1858. 

• Roberts, Field Marshal Lord, Forty -one Years in India, Richard Bentley, London, 1897 

• Forty-one years in India (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/16528) at Project Gutenberg 

• Russell, William Howard, My Diary in India in the years 1858-9, Routledge, London, 1860, (2 vols.) 

• Sen, Surendra Nath, Eighteen fifty-seven, (with a foreword by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad), Indian Ministry of 
Information & Broadcasting, Delhi, 1957. 

• Thomson, Mowbray (Capt.), The Story ofCawnpore, Richard Bentley, London, 1859. 

• Trevelyan, Sir George Otto, Cawnpore, Indus, Delhi, (first edition 1865), reprint 2002. 

• Wilberforce, Reginald G, An Unrecorded Chapter of the Indian Mutiny, Being the Personal Reminiscences of 
Reginald G. Wilberforce, Late 52nd Infantry, Compiled from a Diary and Letters Written on the Spot London: 
John Murray 1884, facsimile reprint: Gurgaon: The Academic Press, 1976. 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 32 

Tertiary sources 

• "Indian Mutiny." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Online, http://www.eb.com: 180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/ 
342/91. html.23 March 1998. 

• " Lee-Enfield Rifle (http://www.eb.com: 180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=index/in/dia/73. html)." Encyclopaedia 
Britannica Online. 23 March 1998. 

Fictional and narrative literature 

• Conan Doyle, Arthur. The Sign of the Four, featuring Sherlock Holmes, originally appearing in Lippincott's 
Monthly Magazine 1890. 

Farrell, J.G. The Siege of Krishnapur. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1985 (orig. 1973; Booker Prize winner). 
Fenn, Clive Robert. For the Old Flag: A Tale of the Mutiny. London: Sampson Low, 1899. 
Fraser, George MacDonald. Flashman in the Great Game. London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1975. 
Grant, James. First Love and Last Love: A Tale of the Mutiny. New York: G Routledge & Sons, 1869. 
Kaye, Mary Margaret. Shadow of the Moon. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979. 
Kil worth, Garry Douglas. Brothers of the Blade: Constable & Robinson, 2004. 

Leasor, James, the Drum (http://www.jamesleasor.com/follow-the-drum/. "Follow). London: Heinemann, 
1972, reissued James Leasor Ltd, 201 1. 

Masters, John. Nightrunners of Bengal. New York: Viking Press, 1951. 

Raikes, William Stephen. 12 Years of a Soldier's Life In India. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1860. 
Rossetti, Christina Georgina. "In the Round Tower at Jhansi, 8 June 1857." Goblin Market and Other Poems. 
1862. 

Anurag Kumar. Recalcitrance: a novel based on events of 1857— 58 in Lucknow. Lucknow: AIP Books, Lucknow 
2008. 

Stuart, V.A. The Alexander Sheridan Series: # 2: 1964. The Sepoy Mutiny; # 3: 1974. Massacre at Cawnpore; # 4: 
1974. The Cannons of Lucknow, 1975. # 5: The Heroic Garrison. Reprinted 2003 by McBooks Press. (Note: # 1 — 
Victors & Lords deals with the Crimean War.) 

External links 

• http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1800_1899/1857revolt/nanasahib/nanasahib. 
html 

• Sepoy Blog, A day by day account of 1857 Rebellion (http://1857mutiny.com) 

• First War of Independence — Sify (http://sify.com/itihaas/fullstory. php?id=13375033) 

• 1857 first freedom fight:: %6W :: sms "mm (http://www.1857.in) 

• 1857 was not the first war of Independence (http://www.twocircles.net/2007jull0/ 
1857_was_not_first_war_independence.html) 

• Development of Situation- January to July 1857 - Maj (Retd) AGHA HUMAYUN AMIN from WASHINGTON 
DC defencejounal.com (http://defencejournal.com/dec99/1857.htm) 

• The Library of Congress (US) — Research Centers — Country Study — India @ 1857 (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/ 
cs/intoc.html) 

• Alexander Ganse World History at KMLA — Mutiny 1857 (http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/19cen/ 
sepoyl85758.html) 

• The Sepoy War of 1857 — Emory.edu (http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Mutiny.html) 

• The Indian Mutiny BritishEmpire.co.uk (http://www.britishempire.co.uk/forces/armycampaigns/ 
indiancampaigns/mutiny /mutiny. htm) 

• Paintings related to events of 1857 (http://www.war-art.com/indian_mutinyl.htm) 



Indian Rebellion of 1857 33 

• British Army Official Records of the Era (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/catalogue/RdLeaflet. 
asp?sLeafletID=31&j=l) 

• Karl Marx, New York Tribune, 1853—1858, The Revolt in India marxists.org (http://www.marxists.org/archive/ 
marx/works/ 1 857/india/index . htm) 

• In Pictures: Rare images of the 1857 uprising in India (http://news.bbc.co.Uk/l/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/07/ 
south_asia_indian_mutiny_/html/l.stm), BBC News, 12 May 2007 

• India Rising National Army Museum (UK) (http://www.national-army-museum.ac.uk/exhibitions/ 
indiaRising/) 

• A Great British Tradition (http://www. socialistreview.org.uk/ article. php?articlenumber=9952), John 
Newsinger on the Great Indian Rebellion, Socialist Review, May 2007. 

• Narrative of Munshi Jeewan Lai (http://www.kapadia.com/NativeNarrative/NarrativeofMunshiJeewanLal. 
htm) 



Article Sources and Contributors 34 

Article Sources and Contributors 

Indian Rebellion of 1857 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?oldid=49 805 9742 Contributors: 10 000 thundering typhoons, 130. 64.3 l.xxx, 20K-Manl2, A Nobody, A bit iffy, A.Ou, 
Aalahazrat, Aarondodson, Abecedare, Abulfazl, Acsenray, Adam Keller, Aditya0908, Advil, Afterdawn, Agent007bond, AgeofEmpire, Ahoerstemeier, Ahseaton, Aipbookslko, Aitias, Ajcadoo, 
Akshar, Alansohn, Aldis90, Alexander Domanda, Alice69, Alren, Altaar, Alpykkr, AmarChandra, AnakngAraw, Anand Arvind, Andrew Gray, Andrew Gwilliam, Andrwsc, AndyZ, Angmar09, 
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 

Image: Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning - Project Gutenberg eText 16528.jpg Source: 

http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?titIe=FiIe:Charles_Canning,_l st_Earl_Canning_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_16528.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Tagishsimon 
Image: DaIhousie.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?title=File:Dalhousie.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: David Lauder, Materialscientist, Nv8200p 
File:Rani ofjhansi.jpg Source: http: //en. wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Rani_ofJhansi.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Amenhtp, Martin H., Roland zh, Sankalpdravid 
Image:Bahadur Shah II - aka Zafar - Project Gutenberg eText 17711.jpg Source: 

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?titIe=FiIe:Bahadur_Shah_II_-_aka_Zafar_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_1771 l.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bukk, Ekabhishek, Gryffindor, 
Tagishsimon 

File: SAKhan.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?title=File:SAKhan.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Rama's Arrow at en.wikipedia Later versions 
were uploaded by Megapixie, Arslanl080, Raul654 at en.wikipedia. 

File:Mangal pandey gimp.jpg Source: http ://en. wiki pedia. org/ w/index.php?title=File: Man gal_pandey_gimp.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was IndianCow at 
en.wikipedia 

File: 1857 mutineers mosque meerut2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?title=File: 1857_mutineers_mosque_meerut2.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User: Fowler& fowler 
File:KotwalDhanSinghGurjarMeerut.jpg Source: http ://en. wiki pedia. org/ w/index.php?title=File: KotwalDhanSinghGurjarMeerut.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 
Contributors: Chhora 

File:1858 Delhi flag tower.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1858_Delhi_flag_tower.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Amenhtp, Kkabhishek, Martin H., 
Roland zh 

File:Indian revolt of 1857 states map.svg Source: http ://en. wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Indian_revolt_of_l 857_states_map.svg License: unknown Contributors: Abhishekjoshi, 
Juliancolton, Planemad, Roland zh, Wknight94, Zykasaa, 3 anonymous edits 

Image:1857 ruins jantar mantarobservatory2.jpg Source: http: //en. wikipedia.org/w /index. php'?title=File: 1857_ruins_jantar_mantar_observatory2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: 
Original uploader was Fowler&fowler at en.wikipedia 

File: 1857 cashmeri gate delhi.jpg Source: http: //en. wiki pedia. org/ w/index.php?title=File: 1857_cashmeri_gate_delhi.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alpunin, Magog the Ogre, 
Roland zh 

Image:1857 hindu raos house2.jpg Source: http: //en. wiki pedia. org/ w/index.php'?title= File: 1857_hindu_raos_house2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User: Fowler&fowler 
Image:1857 bankofdeIhi2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: 1857_bank_of_delhi2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Major Robert Christopher and Harriet 
Tytler 

File: The capture of the king of delhi by Captain Hodson.jpg Source: http ://en. wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:The_cap ture_of_the_king_of_delhi_by_Captain_Hodson.jpg License: 
Public Domain Contributors: In a book by R. Montgomery Martin 

File: TantiaTopel858.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php'?title=File:TantiaTope 1858.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Johnxxx9, 1 anonymous edits 
File:Cawnpore Memorial, 1860.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?title=File:Cawnpore_Memorial,_1860.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was 
IndianCow at en.wikipedia 



Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 35 

Image: 1857_hospital_wheeler_cawnpore2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: 1857_hospitaI_wheeler_cawnpore2.jpg License: unknown Contributors: 

User:Fowler&fowler 

Image:1857_sutter_ghat_cawnpore2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/1ndex. php?tit!e=File: 1857_sutter_ghat_cawnpore2.jpg License: unknown Contributors: UsenFowler&fowler 

File: 1858 Kanpur well monument.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: 1 858_Kanpur_well_monument.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: John Murray 

Image:1857_outside_well_cawnpore2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?title=File:1857_outside_well_cawnpore2.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User: Fowler& fowler 

File:Henry Montgomery Lawrence - Project Gutenberg eText 16528.jpg Source: 

http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?tit!e=FiIe: Henry _Montgomery_Lawrence_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_l 6528.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Tagishsimon 

File:Image-Secundra Bagh after Indian Mutiny higher res.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?title=File:Image-Secundra_Bagh_after_Indian_Mutiny _higher_res.jpg License: 

Public Domain Contributors: Nauticashades, Pinkville, Roland zh, Romary, Victuallers, Wiki-uk, Wst, 2 anonymous edits 

File: This sketch of Lucknow's Alam Bagh was made by Lt CH Mecham on 25 December 1857 while fierce fighting raged on. In a note at the bottom of the sketch, the artist wishes ' 'my 

future readers many happy returns of this festive season"..jpg Source: 

http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:This_sketch_oC 

License: Public Domain Contributors: Rillke, Roland zh, SridharlOOO 

File: 1857 jhansi fort2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: 1857_jhansi_fort2.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User:Fowler&fowler 

File: The Ranee ofJhansi-Chambers-1859.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?title=File:The_Ranee_of_Jhansi-Chambers-l 859.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: 

Abhishekjoshi, Picus viridis, Ranveig, Roland zh, Utcursch 

File: Ilnl857amax.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?title=File:Ilnl857amax.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: SridharlOOO 

File:Lectern - Jhelum by Khalid Mahmood.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Lectern_-_Jhelum_by_Khalid_Mahmood.jpg License: Creative Commons 

Attribution- Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Original uploader was Khalid Mahmood at en.wikipedia 

File: The Relief of Lucknow.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia. org/ w/index.php?title=File: The_Relief_of_Lucknow.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Intelligent 1000, Roland zh, 

SridharlOOO 

File: British soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh Lucknow.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?title=File:British_soldiers_looting_Qaisar_Bagh_Lucknow.jpg License: Public Domain 

Contributors: Ashrfl979, Picus viridis, Ranveig, Roland zh, Utcursch, Wiki-uk 

File:Vereshchagin-Blowing from Guns in British India.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php'?title=File:Vereshchagin-Blowing_from_Guns_in_British_India.jpg License: Public 
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File:Disarmingmax.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Disarmingmax.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Johnxxx9 

File:JusticeTenniell857Punch.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JusticeTenniell857Punch.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Amenhtp, Martin H., Telriinya 
File:Bahadur Shah Zafar.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Bahadur_Shah_Zafar.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Robert Tytler and Charles Shepard 
File:Indian Rebellion Hangings.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?title=File:Indian_Rebellion_Hangings.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: G.dallorto, Infrogmation, 
Netizen, Pinkville, Ranveig, Romary, 7 anonymous edits 



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